Bronchial Asthma

Asthma is a condition that occurs because of an inflammation of the air passages going to the lungs. Irritation in the airway causes it to become highly sensitive, causing the lining of the path to swell up, which blocks the air going to the lungs. The severity of the disease varies from person to person. For one, it could be as simple as experiencing trouble in breathing. For those severely afflicted, asthma can be a life-threatening condition.

Scale of the Problem

Statistics record that around 100 to 150 million people worldwide suffer from bronchial asthma. It is believed that at no time soon will the numbers decline as time progresses. Mortality rates worldwide is recorded at approximately 180,000 people annually. Twenty-five to 30 years ago, only 2 percent of the Swiss population had the disorder. Recently this figure has risen to 8 percent. In Germany, records show that about four million of its population suffers from bronchial asthma. Medical records in Western Europe show that people suffering from asthma have doubled in the last 10 years. The numbers in the United States of America has risen exponentially. Cases have risen by 60 percent in recent years and deaths are rising by 5,000 in number a year. Japan has three million recorded asthmatic patients. One out of six children below 16 years old is affected by the disease in Australia.


The rise in bronchial asthma cases has been attributed to urbanization. This theory has never been concluded because indoor allergens have always been identified as the primary risk factor for asthma. Overexposure to tobacco smoke or exposure to chemical irritants can also lead to asthma. A sudden change in the weather, emotional extremes and exercise can trigger asthma attacks as well.

Researchers are still unable to determine the real cause of the 50 percent rise in asthma cases every year throughout the world. There have been cases where hundreds of citizens are afflicted with severe asthma attacks for no apparent reason.

Breast Enlargement Surgery

Breast enlargement is the third most common cosmetic surgery performed in the United States. Clinically known as augmentation mamoplasty, surgical breast implants have seen an increase of more than 20% over the past four years.

Mostly, all breast surgery today is performed with saline filled implants that consist of a silicone shell filled with sterile saltwater. Saline filled implants are safe because the body absorbs the saline solution in case the implant ruptures or leaks. At present, the FDA does not approve silicone gel breast implants because they are not proven to be safe.

Women looking for breast enlargement should have realistic expectation of the outcome. Though the implantation can improve an individual’s appearance and self-esteem, the desire to match the looks of one’s ideal won’t necessarily materialize. The outcome will depend upon individual factors such as health, the chest structure and the shape of the body, the type of surgical procedure and the size of implant, prior breast surgery, and the skill and experience of the surgical team.

Prior to the surgery, it is important to ascertain whether the American Board of Plastic Surgery certifies the surgeon. In addition to this, an individual should question the doctor regarding the risk or complications involved in breast augmentation, the size, shape and texture of implant, the contents of implant, the remedial measures if anything go wrong with the surgery, and the time of recovery. The plastic surgeon must also be informed about the individual’s medical records. Any weight reduction program or future planning of pregnancy should be told to the surgeon because this can affect the long-term result of breast enlargement.

A breast enlargement surgery takes 1-2 hours or more depending on the type of surgery and is usually done under local anesthesia. The implant is placed either under the breast tissue or the chest muscle beneath the breast. The surgery is usually performed on an outpatient basis, but sometimes hospitalization may be necessary for some individuals.

Complications may occur with this surgery. The common complications are breast pain, breast hardness and numbness in the nipples that may last for years. Some individuals may also develop an infection that may require the removal of the implants for several months until the infection clears. Implants may also occasionally leak, rupture, wrinkle, or change shape necessitating a second surgery to replace the damaged implants. Differences in shape and size of the breast after the surgery may also occur in some cases.

While there is no scientific evidence that breast augmentation causes breast cancer, the presence of breast implants can make it technically difficult to detect breast cancer on a mammogram.

Breast Enlargement Pumps

Manufacturers claim the pumps are a miracle treatment for women who dream of fuller and supple breasts without the pains and health problems associated with surgery. Breast enlargement pumps consist of a pump attached to a specially designed cups or cylinders. Each cup or the cylinder is attached to the breasts and manually pumped up to a good pressure. This procedure is repeated for 15 minutes twice a day to produce the best results.

According to the manufacturer, the external pressure creates a suction by which the breasts are pulled outward. This process increases vacuums of fat and fluids and makes them flow into the breast tissue cells causing them to enlarge. Pumps also helps to build and expand the mammary gland tissue by stimulating a balanced natural hormone level and encourages increased production of collagen to provide firmer breasts.

Some manufacturers claim that regular stimulation of the breast tissue by pumps induces the pituitary gland to increase the production and release of the female hormones responsible for breast growth. Besides, regular stimulation and the gentle stretching of the breast repeatedly induces new cellular growth and enlarges the breast. The process works in the same manner as regular exercising does for muscle growth.

Whether the breast enlargement pump is effective in the enhancement of the breasts is still a matter of speculation. Many doctors deny any role of pumps in the process of breast enlargement. The supposed increase in the size, doctors say, is purely a placebo effect. Secondly, the elastic nature of the skin responds to the prolonged pumping by stretching itself to an extent as to give the effect of an enlargement.

Some women claim that prolonged use of pumps has increased their breast by 2 cups. Some have reported an increase by a cup size within three weeks. The use of breast enlargement pumps may harm or damage the breast tissue, so before deciding on the use of pumps it would be worth the effort to investigate all information thoroughly.

Breast Cancer Statistics

As the awareness of breast cancer increases, so does the availability of information on the disease to the general public. There has been much research done on the disease, which includes the statistics on its prevalence and survival rates. Below is an enumeration of these statistics.

Recent figures

Breast cancer has been proven to be the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. It is also the most common form of cancer among women. This trend is expected to continue. Studies conducted by the World Health Organization estimate that for 2006, there will be 1.2 million women who will be diagnosed with breast cancer.

Studies have also shown that a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer during her lifetime is about 1 out of 7 or 13.4 percent. However, breast cancer is not restricted to women. Studies also estimate that thousands of men will be diagnosed with the disease.

With regard to death rates, it is estimated that the chance that breast cancer will be the cause for a woman’s death is about 1 in 33, or 3 percent. In recent years, the incidence of breast cancer death has declined. Doctors attribute these declines to early detection and new treatments.

Figures also show that the chance of having the disease increases with age. By the age of 30, the chance of having the disease is 1 out of 2,212. For women over the age of 80, the chance increases to 1 out of 8. However, the survival rates are less for younger women because they tend to have more aggressive forms of cancer. It has also been proven that white, Hawaiian and African-American women have the highest incidence of breast cancer as opposed to their Asian counterparts who have some of the lowest incidence rates.

Studies also show that early detection increases the survival rate by as much as 96 percent, especially for those women who detect breast cancer in its first stage. However, the survival rates for patients who have had the disease decreases after five years.

These figures tell us a number of things. One of these is that the key to surviving breast cancer is early detection. Another important thing is that women need to be aware of the risks that they face and that they should take preventive measures to mitigate the effects of this dreaded disease.

Breast Cancer Awareness

In recent years, the incidence of breast cancer among women has increased. As a result of this, organizations that aim to raise breast cancer awareness have doubled their efforts to give women around the world the right information to help them prevent and deal with this disease. These organizations teach women to detect early signs of cancer and recognize the symptoms of the disease. It has been proven that early detection increases a woman’s chance of survival by as much as 96 percent.


Some of the symptoms that women are told to watch out for include lumps, which are usually firm and painless. Other possible symptoms include swelling on the underarms and on the skin on the breasts which then develops an unusual appearance. Women are also asked to look out for veins that become prominent in the breast area. Other symptoms also include inverting of the nipples, rashes and changes in skin texture, depressions on the breast area and discharges other than breast milk.

Early Detection Plan

However, looking out for symptoms is usually not enough in detecting this disease, since there are instances in which patients are asymptomatic until the cancer reaches stage 3 or 4. To be able to prevent this, breast cancer organizations encourage women to come up with an early detection plan, which includes clinical breast examinations every three years for women aged 20 to 39, then every year thereafter. A monthly breast examination for women beginning at age 20 is also encouraged. Mammograms every two years for women in their 40s and yearly mammograms for women in their 50s are also being emphasized. Women are also told to keep a record of these exams and their appointments with their doctors. Additionally, women are urged to eat a low-fat diet, engage in regular exercise and avoid smoking and drinking alcohol.

The importance of early detection of breast cancer cannot be denied since it has been proven to increase a cancer patient’s survival rate by as much as 96 percent. Given this, it is then important for women to do what they can to prevent having to suffer unnecessarily from this disease. Having an early detection plan is an effective way of doing just that.

Breast Augmentation

Ever since breast augmentation surgery became popular in the 1960s, women have improved their bodies and their self -esteem with silicone and saline implants. Breast augmentation is a trendy cosmetic surgical practice. Women hope the results of breast augmentation will seem and feel natural.

One must keep in mind that breast augmentation can only be done when a woman’s breasts have completely developed. The candidate must be emotionally and physically mature and recognize her own reasons for choosing this course of action. Practical expectations are also significant and one must be willing to understand that the results may not be quite what she expected.

Breast augmentation is considered valuable by many women as it helps them recover their self-image. People undergo breast augmentation for different reasons. For instance, there are women who go for breast augmentation because they are concerned that their breasts are too small, while a lot of women have the surgery to restore their natural breast size, which may changed as a result of pregnancy, weight loss, or age.

Different types of implants are available. These may be enclosed within an even silicone or a textured facade. The type of implant used depends on the woman’s personal needs, the surgeon’s preferences, as well as the size and shape of the implants. Based upon the patient’s needs, the surgeon may select a round or contoured insert. And, of course, the bigger the cup size, the larger the breast implant will be.

Breast augmentation does not necessarily mean a one-time surgery. There may be need for supplementary surgical procedures and treatments. Surgeon visits over the course of the woman’s life may be essential. Breast implants also may not be lifetime inserts. There are possibilities that a woman will need to have the implants removed, and there may not be options to have further implants put in.

Breast Augmentation FAQs

Breast augmentation is a cosmetic surgical procedure done to increase the size and shape of a woman’s breasts by placing a saline filled implant with a silicone shell under the breast.

What are the reasons why women opt for breast augmentation?

In most cases, women wish to undergo a breast augmentation procedure when they feel their current breast size is too small or disproportionate to their body size. In some instances the breasts may be unevenly developed and breast augmentation procedure is preferred to rectify the problems. Women, who find that their breast size has shrunken after pregnancies, also wish to restore their breast size through breast augmentation. Also, those women who have undergone a mastectomy often choose to have breast augmentation.

What are the benefits of breast augmentation?

Breast augmentation makes the breasts larger and fuller. The results may not look exactly like natural larger breasts. The breasts tend to be a bit rounder and less saggy than natural breasts of the same size.

What is the minimum age requirement to have a breast augmentation?

A woman must be at least 18 years of age to undergo breast augmentation.

How much cost will be incurred for breast augmentation?

The cost of breast augmentation may vary depending on several factors. This may include the place where the surgery is performed, the fees of the plastic surgeon and anesthesiologist and what style and type of implants are used.

Is breast augmentation painful?

The intensity and duration of pain vary with individuals. After the procedure, most women feel tired and sore for a few days. Usually women are able to return to normal activity in three to four days without much pain.

How long does the procedure take?

It takes approximately 1-2 hours for a routine breast augmentation procedure. The duration of the procedure differs according to the technique used, the placement of the implants and the type of anesthesia used.

Is there a higher risk for cancer in women with implants?

No evidence is available to substantiate that breast implants are associated with a higher cancer rate.

Breast Augmentation Doctors

If you are considering breast augmentation, it is important to find an experienced, board certified doctor. Breast augmentation surgery involves certain risks and uncertainties that only a board certified plastic surgeon that is adequately trained and has proven knowledge can handle. Those preferring to undergo breast augmentation should ideally consult a surgeon who is board certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties, American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) or American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS).

A good breast augmentation doctor will assess your health and ascertain which surgical techniques are the best for you. Most breast augmentation surgeons will also discuss possible options regarding plastic surgery, as well as the risks and limitations of the procedure. If the breasts are sagging, the doctor may recommend a breast lift. During the consultation, reputed breast augmentation doctors provide before and after pictures of previous patients. You can always consult other patients of the doctor to ascertain his or her expertise.

The issues discussed during the initial consultation should include guidelines on eating and drinking before surgery, the cost of the surgery, the kind of facility the surgery will be performed in, the type of anesthesia that will be used during surgery, recovery procedures and possible side effects and complications. Prior to the surgery, the doctors should be aware of the medications, vitamins and drugs a patient is taking. It is very important that women who smoke tell their doctors, since smoking could possibly delay the healing process and cause added complications. Most breast augmentation doctors will also recommend a baseline mammogram before undergoing surgery.

Breast augmentation physicians will help a patient decide what the best method of inserting and positioning the implants will be. Once the surgery is over, the physician should provide e advice regarding when to start exercises and normal activities.

Breast Augmentation Before And After

Before deciding upon breast augmentation surgery one must choose a qualified surgeon for better odds of successful surgery. Prior to consultation, one should find a surgeon certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Tests performed by the surgeon should include ones that assess the existing tissue to conclude if there is an adequate amount to cover the breast implant.

After surgery, incisions are stitched, taped and the breasts are covered and supported by a gauze dressing. Patients are fitted with a surgical bra that provides support for a number of weeks. After surgery, the common symptoms are exhaustion, pain, and discomfort. However these after effects can be reduced considerably though administration of oral medicines. Inflammation slowly subsides and becomes un-noticeable in about a month’s time. Stitches are removed within seven to ten days.

For weeks after the surgery, the breasts will be exceptionally sensitive. Physical contact should be avoided until sensitivity subsides. The rehabilitation process takes about three to four weeks. Breasts will continue to be swollen for approximately four to five weeks. Post surgery, activities such as a working out, lifting heavy items and anything strenuous should be avoided for about a month. Breast augmentation scars will be rigid and pink in color for roughly six weeks. Subsequently, scars may appear to widen but will start to fade within a few months, though they will never completely disappear.

There are risks that could come from breast implants. For one, an implant may make it difficult to perform a mammography, or even get in the way of detecting breast cancer during a mammogram. Post-surgery, one may develop Capsular contracture, better known as build-up of scar tissue around the implant. This causes excessive and unnatural breast firmness. If it is of an extreme nature, one may require corrective surgery. An excessively large breast implant may cause problems after surgery as well: it may be more affected by gravity and consequently trigger an earlier droop.

Deflation of an implant is mostly harmless. However, it may carry the danger of additional surgical treatment for a substitution. Breast augmentation infection is rare and can be easily treated with antibiotics. Despite it once being thought of as a risk, multiple studies have consistently failed to demonstrate that women with breast implants have a higher rate of breast cancer. In fact, two major studies have shown a lower than expected rate of disease in women with implants.

Breast Augmentation 101

Breast augmentation, technically known as augmentation mammoplasty, is a cosmetic surgical procedure to enhance the size and shape of a woman’s breast through breast implants. Women choose breast augmentation for various reasons: when the breast size is too small, to balance a variation in breast size, to restructure breasts that have lost their shape from breast-feeding or aging and as a reconstructive procedure following breast surgery. Breast augmentation will increase the size of a woman’s breasts, but it will not perfect them.

Most procedures are performed in an outpatient setting under general anesthesia. By inserting an implant behind each breast, surgeons are able to enhance a woman’s bust line by one or more bra cup sizes. Earlier, silicone gel-filled implants were used for breast augmentation. Because of the complications using silicone, surgeons today usually make use of saline, a saltwater solution. In 1992, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed a ban on the general use of silicone gel-filled breast implants. The new saline implants are a safe substitute.

The surgical incisions are made in the crease of the breast where the breast meets the chest, beneath the areola, or in the armpit. An implant insertion behind the breast tissue or under the chest wall muscle will push the breast tissue forward, making the breast appear larger and fuller. Most physicians prefer placing the implants under the chest muscle. This is because the muscle provides an additional layer of padding to provide a more natural look, and minimizes the probability of scar tissue formation around the implant. A small scar will be present after the surgery, even though most plastic surgeons try to make the incision in an area that will lessen the visibility of the scar.

According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, the number of women undergoing breast augmentation is increasing at a rapid pace. Over the last couple of years, breast augmentation surgery has advanced in terms of safety and effectiveness.