Analog Oscilloscopes

An oscilloscope is an instrument used to measure voltage in an electronic device. It measures voltage against time. Oscilloscopes are used for several applications, especially to test the working condition and voltage of an electronic device; to test the circuitry of new electronic equipment; or to test the electronics of new software.

An analog oscilloscope applies the measured signal voltage directly to the vertical axis which is represented in the electron beam that passes from left to right on the oscilloscope’s display screen. There are many kinds of oscilloscopes: analog oscilloscope, digital oscilloscope, digital storage oscilloscope, digital phosphor oscilloscope and digital sampling oscilloscope.

There are several advantages of analog oscilloscopes as compared to other oscilloscopes. Their focus and intensity controls can be adjusted for a sharper and more legible display. Analog oscilloscopes are preferred for displaying real-time rapidly varying signals. Analog oscilloscopes also have a phosphor-based display screen that brightens the trace whenever the signal features occur. This is known as intensity grading. Intensity grading makes the distinguishing of signal details easier.

When the analog oscilloscope’s probe is connected to a circuit, it allows the voltage signal to travel to the vertical system of the oscilloscope, or to be more specific, the vertical deflection plates of the cathode ray tube near the screen. These deflection plates create a glowing dot that moves across the oscillator’s screen. The dot moves up when there is positive voltage and moves down when there is negative voltage. The dot moves from left to right of the screen because of triggering, a control mechanism for maintaining a steady line or trace on the screen, for stabilizing a repeating signal. The horizontal and vertical deflections cause the dot to be shown in the form of line, which represents voltage.

There are also analog storage oscilloscopes. This indicates an additional feature that makes the trace pattern to stay on the screen for a longer time. This is possible by secondary emission.

Agilent, B+K Precision, EZ Digital, Extech Instruments Corp., Fluke, Instek, International Tools & Technologies, Inc., Iwatsu, Kenwood TMI Corp., LeCroy, Morrow Wave, Tektronix and Yokogawa are some of the popular analog oscilloscope manufacturers. Information about analog oscilloscopes, along with their prices and product facts can be sourced from the internet. There are hundreds of sites that give information about analog oscilloscopes.

Hot Flash Symptoms

Most American menopausal women, about 75% of them, suffer from hot flashes. There are other conditions like male hormone restriction therapy for prostate problems, hyperthyroidism, low blood pressure and low blood sugar, where hot flashes are known to occur.

The immediate cause of the problem is the dilation of blood vessels on the upper part of the body, particularly the neck and face. The root cause of the problem, what causes this enlarging of blood vessels, is still unclear. Large fluctuations of female hormones seem to be the prime cause. Hot spicy food, caffeine, hot weather, alcohol and stress act as triggers to start hot flashes.

The attack can end in a few seconds or last as long as an hour, and there is a wide variation in the severity of the attack. Some can sense the attack, while for others it is very sudden. The first and most common symptom is the feeling of heat on the upper body, particularly the neck and the face. At the same time, the body core temperature drops as much as three degrees. The face flushes, that is it turns, red.

To cool the hot area there is perspiration. This could be anything from slight moist skin to profuse sweating. The heart beats faster to compensate. There may be palpitation or irregular heartbeats. Since the head is directly affected, there is a chance of headache and dizziness. All this put together makes you feel weak and suffocated. Insomnia is a common complaint after hot flashes. After the attack is over you feel very chilled, as the body temperature is very low.

Depending on the severity of the attack, many treatments are available. A simple lifestyle modification may be enough for mild hot flashes. Natural herbal medications, acupuncture and other over-the-counter medicines can manage moderate hot flashes. Severe hot flashes need hormonal therapy and other prescription drugs.

An Introduction to Stethoscopes

Stethoscopes are simple yet effective tools that allow doctors to listen to the internal sounds in a patient’s body. Doctors can use stethoscopes to listen to a patient’s heart, intestines, breathing, and blood flow.

A French doctor named Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec invented the first stethoscope in 1816. Dr. Laennec used a hollow wooden tube to listen to the heartbeat of his female patients so that he wouldn’t have to come into improper contact with them by touching his head to their chests. He discovered that the hollow wooden tube amplified the sound of the heart beating, making it much easier to hear any anomalies. He called his invention a stethoscope, after the Greek words for chest (stethos) and the verb to examine (scopeein). The design remained relatively unchanged until the 1940s, when Dr. Sprague and Maurice Rappaport investigated the scientific principles behind stethoscopy and created the basic model that is used today.

Stethoscopes are primarily used to listen to a person’s heartbeat. Most stethoscopes have a two-sided piece that can be placed against a person’s chest. One side is a flat plastic diaphragm that magnifies body sounds. The other side of this piece is a hollow cup, called a bell, that transmits the sound of the patient’s skin vibrating. The bell picks up low frequency sounds, while the diaphragm is good for hearing sounds at a higher frequency. The doctor can listen to a person’s heartbeat with either side and can hear any problems such as an irregular beat, weak heartbeat, or a number of other irregularities.

Doctors can hear any blockage or irregular movement in the intestines with stethoscopes. Stethoscopes are also used to listen for blocked arteries and breathing irregularities.

Stethoscopes are vital tools that allow doctors to detect any irregular sounds in a patient’s body, letting them diagnose and treat problems before they become more serious.

An Introduction to Rhinoplasty

Nasal surgery (Rhinoplasty Surgery), the most common form of plastic surgery practiced in America today, is a procedure that alters the framework of the nose, manipulating the bone and cartilage structure and the skin to improve the appearance of the nose. It can be used to change the overall appearance of the face from one where the focus of attention was placed on the nose to one where the attention is drawn away from the nose and towards the eyes, a more natural, pleasing occurrence. When the focus of attention is directed towards any other feature on the face other than the eyes, the face is said to be out of “harmony”. Rhinoplasty surgery, when performed correctly, improves the harmony of the facial features.

Common defects corrected through the use of rhinoplasty surgery include but are not limited to a nose that is too large, too small, crooked or may contain an unwanted hump, birth defect or other deformity. If the nose has been damaged by physical trauma, the surgery may be more intensive than a mere straightening or reduction and may involve an area wider than the nose to fully reconstruct the damage, but it is still rhinoplasty surgery.

Rhinoplasty surgery is a delicate, complex undertaking and should not be entered into without thorough investigation and due diligence. You and your doctor should have many conversations about exactly what you want done and exactly how the doctor is going to accomplish fulfilling your request. Remember this: rhinoplasty surgery is both a science and an art, as is any plastic surgery. Any other surgeon has to be only competent – a plastic surgeon has to be competent and have artistic talent. It is important that the finished product create a harmonious balance with the rest of your face, be natural looking and last forever as well as being medically sound.

Rhinoplasty is different from the surgical procedure used to repair a deviated septum to improve a patient’s breathing. Although the two are quite often done simultaneously and more often than not, a simple rhinoplasty is billed to insurance companies as a deviated septum repair, one has nothing to do with the other. Repairing one’s nose to improve aesthetic appearance and surgery performed on a deviated septum to improve breathing and air flow into the lungs are completely different procedures. In the case of many rhinoplastic surgeries, the complete operation can be performed without any external incisions. And furthermore, many rhinoplasties are performed in the doctor’s office and the patient goes home after a short recovery period of several hours following the surgery, returning to work in a matter of a few days. A splint is placed around the outside of the nose for protection and is usually removed after about a week. With advanced surgical techniques, unless the reconstruction has been extensive, the need for “nose packing” to keep things in place after the surgery has been drastically reduced. There is typically some swelling after the procedure, however, after about one week your new nose will be completely presentable and most people find the return to their jobs goes smoothly and easily.

An Introduction To Laser Printers

The ‘Model 3800’ by IBM was the first laser printer, introduced in 1975. Very soon, the ‘ND 2 by Siemens and the ‘9700’ by Xerox also came out. The technology of laser printers was revolutionized by commencement of the LaserJet in 1984, by HP. After that, the prices of laser printers have continued to drop.

A laser printer basically uses a laser beam to print images of supreme quality. This is done by producing the image on a photosensitive drum with the help of a laser beam, and then the image is transferred onto paper using the usual printing process.

Accuracy, economy and speed are the major advantages that laser printers have. This is because a laser can move very fast compared to an ink jet. And since a laser travels in a single line, it is more precise, thereby avoiding the spilling of ink. Even though laser printers are more expensive than inkjet printers, their toner is cheaper and long lasting. It is because of this that laser printers are used more often in offices.

Cost can be a disadvantage of a laser printer, as they are expensive compared to mechanical printers. The maintenance required by laser printers can be very costly. Also, the quality produced by laser printers is very book-like, and hence they can be misused.

Before one decides to buy a laser printer, there are a few features that should be kept in mind. These include the speed and printing capability (24 ppm for a workgroup printer), the standard resolution, which is 600 dots-per-inch, the printer languages and the paper handling of the printer. The top brands of laser printers include Hewlett Packard, Lexmark and Xerox.

An Introduction To Laser Eye Surgery

Laser eye surgery essentially falls into two categories: PRK, or PhotoRefractive Keratectomy, and LASIK, or laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis. These two types of laser surgery have been modified to create variations on the same theme. LASEK as opposed to LASIK is a more modern version of PRK. All these procedures are conducted with the patient fully conscious, and drops are used to dull any sensations in the eyes.

PRK is a technique whereby the surface is manipulated to eliminate the outermost corneal layer, also known as the epithelium. Removing parts of the epithelium is the first step in the process of laser eye surgery. The next step is restructuring the cornea using an excimer laser. PRK involves scraping away the surface layer of the cornea and an excimer laser is used to reshape the tissue lying underneath the surface corneal tissue. Later, the epithelial layer will grow back. The eye regenerates itself. PRK offers an option for those whose cornea is too thin to actually cut into. However, PRK has one significant disadvantage: healing is longer and punctuated with discomfort, unlike in the case of LASIK surgery. The fact that PRK does not require the creation of a corneal flap using a microkeratome blade is a significant advantage. This process does not penetrate the inner layer of the cornea, thereby dropping the risk of inner eye pressure forcing itself on a thinned corneal surface, causing it to protrude. This will further cause vision to deteriorate in the future.

LASEK, or laser assisted sub-epithelial keratomileusis, a highly developed version of PRK, uses an alcohol solution in order to soften the epithelium before getting rid of it. After the cornea is reshaped to correct vision, the epithelium is replaced. The healing process is quicker and smoother than in PRK, and the slicing of the cornea to create a flap is still avoided. EPI-LASEK is still more advanced than LASEK. It preserves the layer of epithelial tissue that has been removed in a medium called a ‘separator’. This procedure further reduces discomfort and speeds up healing, even moreso than LASEK.

LASIK, on the other hand, uses a microkeratome metal blade to cut a flap on the corneal surface, and then an excimer laser to reshape the cornea. This is usually pain-free and vision is corrected instantly, unlike in PRK. Blurriness, though, may be expected for up to 24 hours after the surgery.

Not everyone with eye defects is the ideal candidate for laser surgery. The risks involved are many, and serious enough not to ignore. An educated choice is always the best way to proceed.

An Introduction to First Aid Kits

To truly be prepared, you need a well-stocked, easy-to-reach first aid kit for the home, car, and when you vacation. First aid kits contain all the tools needed in any emergency. The kit may be used for a minor scrape on the knee or, more seriously, for a car accident before the paramedics arrive. Having all the tools gathered ahead of time will help you handle any emergency.

First aid kits may either be bought or made at home. You can buy a first aid kit online, from a drug store, or your American Red Cross chapter may sell them. Prices range from around $10 for a basic kit to $200 for a professional kit. You can also buy kits designed for either the home, the car, the office, or the outdoors. These kits typically cost under $50. Don’t be afraid to personalize the store-bought first aid kit with your prescriptions, extra bandages, emergency contact sheets, or anything else you might need.

If you choose to make your own kit, buy a portable, lightweight and waterproof container to store the supplies. Plastic tubs, plastic tackle boxes, or art supply boxes all make excellent kits. It may be helpful to purchase all your supplies first, and then look for the container to keep and organize them.

When selecting any kit, think of situations that could cause injury. Injuries are caused by medical conditions, the environment, or trauma. Think of who will be using the kit: adults, children, animals? For a kit outside the home, would you need food in an emergency? What about jumper cables or oil in the car? Ask yourself these questions to help design your ideal kit.

Always remember to update your first aid kit. Check to make it is well stocked, the medicines have not expired, and you have the most recent prescriptions and contact information.

An Introduction To Asthma

Asthma is a respiratory disease that narrows the airways. The condition is usually caused by a person’s exposure to allergens, cold air, emotional stress or exercise. A person who suffers from the disease experiences wheezing, shortness of breath, tightening of the chest, and coughing. The disorder causes the airways to hyperactively produce mucus in reaction to various stimuli. The symptoms can be mild or life-threatening. Taking medications or changing one’s lifestyle can help control the problem.


When the problem of asthma arises, it is referred to as an asthma attack. Whenever a patient suffers from an attack, he displays a number of symptoms such as shortness of breath and wheezing. A cough, which may be accompanied by clear sputum, may also be present during the attack. Attacks usually come without warning. They may be accompanied by a pain in the chest and breathing becomes very difficult.

Whenever a person experiences an asthma attack, there is an alarming increase in heart rate. Audible lung sounds are heard through the stethoscope, too, caused by rapid breathing and an over-inflation of the chest. During an asthma attack, there is a tightening of the muscles in the respiratory area and the ribs, which causes the body to struggle for more air. The patient may even lose consciousness during this time


The first step in diagnosing an asthmatic patient is to check on his medical history. Having a family history of asthma puts a person at high risk for asthma attacks as well. Testing someone with a peak flow meter, which measures the restriction of the airways, can determine if he is suffering from asthma. If a clear diagnosis cannot be determined through this test, a formal lung function test may be conducted.

An Introduction To Aromatherapy

The art and science of using volatile oils for the psychological and physical well-being is called aromatherapy. These volatile oils are derived from plants. Essential oils are used the most in aromatherapy on account of their innumerable benefits they have on the mind-body system of human beings. There are many types of essential oils that are used in aromatherapy to fetch different therapeutic results.

Aromatherapy is said to trigger certain biochemical responses in the brain that in turn activate certain dormant function of the body and mind to impart a sense of well-being. Since aromatherapy is widely practiced, there is an array of products in the market that are sold as aromatherapy products, but actually are not. Sometimes even certain types of perfumes are passed on as aromatherapy oils.

The fakes do not get the desired results that one would expect from a real aromatherapy product. The fakes normally use fragrance oils in place of true aromatherapy oils. So while buying an aromatherapy product it should be ensured that the brand belongs to a reputed company and the ingredients are clearly listed on the container.

Aromatherapy has been in use for thousands of years now, even if it came to be known as aromatherapy somewhere after 20th century. Aromatherapy is said to be of Chinese origin. Egyptians have used aromatherapy by drawing distilled oils from cinnamon, nutmeg, cedar wood, clove, and myrrh. From Egyptians it is said to have passed on to Greek. Aromatherapy has also been used by Persians and Indians thousands of years ago.

Backed by a rich history, it is only in 19th century that the perfumery industry woke up to the benefits of using aromatherapy for financial gains. This was also the time when aromatherapy began to be tested in scientific laboratories for understanding the important mechanisms of aromatherapy products on mind and body. As a result of its impact on mind, aromatherapy is also considered as a forte of people indulging in spiritual practices.

An Explanation of Medical Billing Software

Medical billing is an increasingly popular office or home-based small business opportunity that involves using skills and knowledge in medical terminology, insurance claims, and customer service to ensure that physicians and clinics receive payment from patients and insurance companies.

Whether working from home based small-businesses or at large hospitals, every medical biller utilizes medical billing software. Though still referred to as medical billing software, today’s electronic medical billing software is also more accurately called medical practice management software and covers many functions. Up-to-date medical billing software will generate a variety of reports based on data, manage appointments, as well as collect, transmit, and track billing information and payments. Current medical billing software will also make sure that records are kept in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act security standards. When deciding on software to buy, compliance with this act is an important consideration and will help you steer clear of some of the software scam artists out there.

When considering software for a medical billing business, here are some things to ask yourself or potential suppliers:

• Does the software include the ability to manage several different accounts?

• Can the software handle multiple doctors or multiple offices?

• Does the software recognize current procedure and diagnosis codes and it is updatable for the future (very important!)

Many vendors will allow a trial use of their program to see if it fits your needs. You will also be able to address whether the supplier answers questions in a timely fashion and if the are helpful in a trouble-shooting situation. Remember that a good medical billing software suite will cost at least $500 so don’t be fooled by people trying to sell $50 products that don’t even function.

Though electronic billing is still mainstream, there is a movement towards online billing where a subscription is setup on the web allowing a paperless entry of patient information, claims, and more. This service will cost more than $200 per month so you have to research and weigh the benefits of a one time investment for electronic medical billing software that is local or the online web-based software that can be used from any web-connected computer or device.