Anxiety is a normal response to various types of stress or danger. Anxiety can manifest itself as an uneasiness of mind regarding an impending or anticipated ill. Although anxiety can be beneficial in certain situations, more often it is an abnormal and overwhelming sense of fear and apprehension. Self-doubt is a component of anxiety, and when anxiety begins to interfere with a person’s daily life, it needs to be treated.

Physical symptoms of anxiety include racing heartbeat, shortness of breath, chest tightness and dry mouth. The person might feel sick, or have “butterflies in the stomach.” Sweating is a common symptom, as is feeling weak or warm all over. Tremors and feeling dizzy are two more symptoms. The person might become confused or experience muscle tension or muscle aches along with fatigue. Some people complain of speeded-up thoughts, and many people feel an urge to urinate.

Cognitive symptoms include feelings of self-doubt and worry over bodily functions. Some people worry that they are having a heart attack, or that they might faint or be unable to breathe. Others fear they will die. Also common are feelings of being alone, being trapped or going insane. The person might worry that people are watching and that no one will help if a problem occurs. An unwillingness to go out and/or a strong flight response are also common. People might feel that they can’t do something, or are making fools out of themselves. Often, worries over health, job, or family overwhelm the person.

Emotional symptoms include feelings of rejection, anger, panic or isolation. The person might worry that they will lose control or have a generalized feeling of “doom and gloom.”

Feeling on edge or keyed up is common, and the person might be easily embarrassed or overly sensitive to criticism. Dread that something catastrophic is about to happen is common. Agitation and irritability, as well as feelings of detachment or isolation, are also signs of anxiety.

Anxiety can be debilitating to the sufferer. The first step toward recovery is recognizing the symptoms and seeking treatment. A combined course of therapy and medication (if necessary) will help the person get control of their anxiety so that it doesn’t dominate their life.

Cat Constipation

Normally a cat has bowel movements once or twice a day. If the pet does not do it or strain to do it with hard feces, the cat is suffering from Constipation. It is a very common problem with cats and an occasional bout of Constipation is nothing to worry about.

But when a cat is chronically constipated it needs serious attention. As the cats age they are more prone to this problem. There are quite a few causes of Cat Constipation. Obstructions like hairballs, tumors and foreign bodies stop the movement of the feces inside the colon, and the fecal matter builds up. This becomes a hard dry mass and distends the colon, which looses its ability to contract and expel feces. This condition is known as megacolon.

When the cats are constipated they behave in a typical manner. They run to their litter box quite often and strain to pass stool. They make noise and start licking the anal area. They lose their appetite and become sluggish. Vomiting and passing a small amount of liquid feces is quite common.

If the Constipation is not very severe, an enema will clear the colon. Hard impacted feces may have to be physically removed in a veterinary clinic under anesthesia. Intravenous liquid is also given to prevent dehydration.

After the bout of Constipation is cleared, the underlying problem, like obstruction in the colon, has to be tackled. For the cats suffering from megacolon or an untreatable or unknown problem, a management regime has to be adopted. A high-fiber diet increases the bulk and assists in bowel movement. Increase the liquid consumption of the cat by feeding canned cat food rather than dry. Milk and soup can also be tried. We have to try and get the cat to consume liquid by a means that the cat likes.

If the megacolon is advanced, no amount of management can make it propel the stool to the exit. The only alternative is surgery. The colon is removed, and most surgeries are successful.


You live a very comfortable life. You party until the wee hours of the morning. You smoke like there is no tomorrow. You guzzle liquor like water. You never exercise or exert any kind of effort, because you do not like the feel of sweat rolling down your forehead. And after years of this lifestyle, time seems to have taken its toll.

At the present time, you are experiencing some chest pains, coupled with shortness of breath each time you try to walk some distance. You never thought that this would happen to you, even with the kind of lifestyle you lead. But now you realize that you are not as omnipotent and mighty as you thought you were.

One of your friends refers you to a doctor. The doctor is not just any kind of doctor. Your friend has referred you to a doctor who specializes in heart problems x96 a cardiologist.

Generally, cardiology is a branch of medicine. And just like any other branch, cardiology has a specific function and focus. It has anything and everything to do with the heart and its specific functions. Cardiology covers disorders of the heart, disorders of the blood vessels, diagnosis and cures for diseases and malfunctions of this vital organ.

For cardiologists to find out what condition your heart is in, they perform a complete physical check up and examination first. The results provide data regarding your heart’s condition. Along with that, you will be asked about your health history and your family’s as well. You will also be asked about your lifestyle and habits. This may seem totally unrelated to your condition, however these pieces of information will give the cardiologist answers regarding your heart condition.

Cardiology also entails several examinations, tests and procedures for patients complaining about possible heart problems. These could include an ultrasound of your heart, a cardiac stress test, an electrocardiogram (or also known as ECG and EKG) and the use of a blood pressure cuff among many others.

Cardiology Stethoscopes

While stethoscopes are used in a variety of situations, they are most commonly used to monitor patient’s hearts. Doctors use cardiology stethoscopes to listen for a variety of irregular sounds that could signal heart problems. Some problems detected by cardiology stethoscopes are irregular heartbeats and heart murmurs.

There are a number of different types of cardiology stethoscopes. Acoustic stethoscopes allow doctors to listen to the internal sounds of a patient’s body but do not amplify or record the sounds. Newer electronic stethoscopes do amplify and record internal body sounds. Many electronic stethoscopes can play back recorded sounds at various speeds and even create graphics or charts to visually represent patterns of the sounds. While acoustic stethoscopes may not have all of the same features as electronic models, they are still more common than electronic models and are reliable for detecting irregularities in a patient’s heartbeat and noticing blood flow problems.

Some of the sounds that doctors most often look for with cardiac stethoscopes are irregular heartbeats and heart murmurs. Cardiologists can hear the distinct sounds that these irregularities cause and treat the patient before the problem becomes worse.

An irregular heartbeat could mean many things. Some people’s hearts quickly speed up when they drink caffeine or alcohol. These types of irregularities are not life threatening, but could be uncomfortable. Other times, an irregularity could be a sign that the person has a life threatening condition such as ventricular fibrillation.

Heart murmurs are the sound of blood flowing too quickly or in abnormal pathways. Many athletes and some pregnant women have heart murmurs, but constant heart murmurs can be a sign that something is seriously wrong.

Cardiology stethoscopes can save lives. Cardiologists use them to detect any unusual noises and diagnose and treat problems before they become life threatening.

Canadian Prescription Drugs

Canadian pharmacies provide safe and affordable prescription drugs. About 50 million people in the US have inadequate medical coverage. The costs of prescription medication are much higher in the US than most countries in the world. As a result, millions of Americans are buying prescription drugs from online pharmacists based in Canada.

Drug prices in the US are not controlled by importing cheaper medicines or by direct controls. This is because it would cause billions of dollars in losses to the pharmaceutical industry and thereby curtail the ability of companies to invest in pharmaceutical research.

In order to provide funding for research and development, companies need to maximize profits. In view of these reasons, the likelihood of drug prices in the US matching those across the border is very low and it does seem like Canadian drugs will continue to be popular in this country.

Patients buying drugs from Canada do not get the same brands as what they get in the US. Some patients’ get a generic drug that is approved for use only in Canada. In many cases, it is possible and preferable to buy a FDA approved generic drug in US.

Canada is a small country and cannot supply all the prescription needs of Americans.

There have been shortages created in their own country due to a bustling illegal cross- border drugs trade. It is anticipated that companies in Canada will limit their supplies in the near future.

Getting Canadian prescription drugs in bulk is against US policy. The government will not prosecute, though, for personal buying in small lots. Canadian prescription drugs are not FDA approved, but their governing bodies have standards similar to the FDA. It is better to deal with a health care provider who knows about prescriptions in Canada. It is also advisable to double-check the dosage and instructions on the prescription before taking the medication.

If the prescription drugs are ordered online, the risk of purchasing a non-standardized drug is higher. Some of the drugs sold online may not have been approved by Health Canada, the regulatory body. There have been complaints from customers who purchased prescription drugs from an online pharmaceutical company. One common complaint has been that the drugs were not from a Canadian pharmacy, as claimed. They were instead manufactured in third world countries, and they do not have the same standards as the US or Canada do. Some customers have complained that they paid for their medications and were never delivered the drugs.

It is imperative therefore to ensure that the Web site selling the drugs is not an illegal one. Checking with consumer protection agencies will reveal if there have been any previous complaints. It is advisable to deal with a legitimate pharmacy or a well-known online drug store.

Canadian Pharmacy School

Pharmacists in Canada are now moving over and going beyond routine duties like sitting behind the counter, collecting drugs and counting them. In fact, the industry is now witnessing a paradigm shift and pharmacists are at the centre of this new development in that country.

Canada is now grooming a new generation of pharmacists who are now even counseling patients and giving them advice on the best and cost effective drugs. This new dimension to the career of a Canadian pharmacist has been attributed to the developments in the industry as a whole and the need to adapt to new market trends. Pharmacists are now being trained to adopt a patient centric approach, which also includes taking over some of the duties, hitherto performed by doctors.

Budding Canadian pharmacists are also being taught to identify, mitigate and prevent problems related to medication. While the field of pharmacy is ever changing and evolving, pharmacists are now required to be on their toes all the time and adapt to changes in all the three modes of drug sale including online, mail order and conventional methods. Pharmacy schools are now giving special training in these aspects. A pharmacist should learn to cope with the bulk of information flowing in or he could be overwhelmed just by the number of new drugs that are hitting the market every year.

Special emphasis is also placed on learning about the laws and regulations that are in place in Canada and the prevalent public health policy at the provincial or national government levels. Pharmacists are also required to liaise with community support groups and with ailment related groups like the local associations like the local lung association and local diabetics association. This mandates the knowledge of public relations work not to mention possession of good communication skills. The curriculum followed by Canadian pharmacy schools has evolved well in the last few years to cover these emerging areas and to provide students with the edge needed to obtain employment after obtaining their degrees.

Drug manufacturers have been roped in by many reputed pharmacy schools to aid pharmacy students in choosing their streams from a wide range of options. Pharmacists are also being guided to grow into the excellent community pharmacists who go on to become the first link in the health care system. They are expected to play a significant role in ensuring that the patients receive the best drug therapy. Pharmacists can also specialize in fields like oncology, infectious disease, psychiatry, etc. Specializations help them in playing their role in various health care teams.

The industry also wants pharmacists in areas like clinical research, marketing and public relations. They are also being involved in preparing information materials related to drugs and in educating pharmacists, physicians and patients.

As of now, 9 universities in Canada are having pharmacy schools. The admission requirements usually vary from one university to another. After obtaining a Bachelors degree in pharmacy, one has to pass a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada. After this, one can also get some practical experience through an internship program. Different provinces in Canada have put forth different requirements for becoming a licensed pharmacist.

In 2002, the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE) began recognizing the accreditations awarded by the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP) for programs leading to a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy.

Canadian Pharmacy Prices

So what is that makes the Canadian pharmacies so attractive to customers in the US? The answer is quite simple and just boils down to one word: pricing. Pharmacies based in Canada claim to offer prices which can more than offset the option of purchasing drugs from a vendor based in US. These pharmacies sell virtually all drugs sold by vendors back in the US and can be shipped to any destination in America. The situation is such that American HMOs are encouraging US citizens to get the prescriptions medications from Canada.

This is the main reason why Canadian pharmacies have managed to attract many US customers and the customer list continues to grow. There have been claims of filling up to 3000 prescriptions a day. Medications imported from Canada could cost up to 60-80 per cent less than those purchased from within the US. Canadian pharmacies also sell drugs to patients without prescriptions in these cases, if the patient is connected to an online doctor. Prescriptions are then given either online or over the phone and the drugs are shipped to your location overnight using the courier service.

Some pharmacies also provide an option of purchasing cheap drugs from countries in Asia and Europe, or whichever country offers the lowest possible price, and can have it shipped to you at no extra charge. In any case, the prices will still be far cheaper than the ones offered by US pharmacies. The entire US pharmaceutical industry is up in arms against their Canadian counterparts and wants to control this trade in order to survive with healthy profit margins.

Canadian Pharmacy Prescriptions

Canadian pharmacies are doling out prescriptions like never before. While they are serving a huge domestic market, they are also catering to customers in the US. These pharmacies operating out of Canada are filling out prescriptions for everything from common cold to controlling blood pressure.

It is understood that they can read prescriptions given out by Canadian doctors for Canadian patients but what about the patients across the border residing in the USA? In many cases, a Canadian doctor rewrites the prescription given out by his US counterpart so as to make the whole process of filing out process legal. In case of unlicensed pharmacies, no one bothers as, prescriptions are not needed just name the drug and they will ship it across to you. Negligence of some of the basic business ethics by certain firms has led to these pharmacies coming under the scanner of authorities both in the US and Canada.

In the US, fears have been raised over the risk to patients from sale of counterfeit drugs. These drugs may contain inert components, which can cause significant harm to the body of the consumer. In some cases it has been found legitimate drugs well past their expiry date were diverted to illegitimate retailers for sale across the internet. Cases of improperly manufactured drugs have also come to light.

According to the Canadian Medical Association, physicians should necessarily conduct a physical exam and discuss the merits and risks associated with consumption of a particular drug before it is prescribed. However, in case of many Canadian pharmacies this was not found to be the case. This was also facilitated by desperate patients in the United States who were willing to buy anything offered cheap for various ailments without being bothered about its side effects.

Some Canadian pharmacies have however, implemented many measures to gain trust of the customer based in US. Most notable among them is arranging for a visit by a Canada based physician to the patient in US for examining him before filling out a prescription. All this is happening while the business for Canadian firms is growing by leaps and bounds. Canadian firms are now filling out prescriptions like never before. Some firms have claimed to have filled as much as 3000 prescriptions a day indicating the volume of business catered to by these pharmacies.

So irrespective of the some of the measures being planned to regulate these pharmacies, it only seems that these firms will continue witness healthy growth rates.

Canadian Pharmacies

The US pharmaceutical industry is currently fighting it out with their Canadian counterparts. The reason? For one, the latter has managed to garner a sizeable amount of the former’s market share. Driven by cheaper prices, this trend is continuing and Canadian pharmacies are adding customers like never before. US pharmaceutical companies have gone on the offensive, criticizing their Canadian counterparts for indulging in unfair trade practices.

The origin of this conflict goes back to the early 90s when the American industry lobbied hard to make cross-border trading with Canada and Mexico duty free. The result of this was the North American Free trade Agreement or NAFTA. Thanks to NAFTA, trade between the three North American countries (the US, Canada and Mexico) began growing. NAFTA permitted free movement of goods across the borders without the imposition of usual cross-border tariffs.

The American industry benefited enormously from this because they could now outsource their manufacturing to these countries and sell the finished products back again to them. Thus the manufacturing costs went down and profits began coming in. American pharmacies, whose main rival those days was Europe, also benefited from this, as most of their R&D facilities were in Canada and the work was done at much lower rates.

The joy of American pharmaceutical companies was short lived as many Canadian companies started selling drugs at discounted prices to US customers. This was done as Canadian companies realized that the cheaper R&D and manufacturing costs can be used to offer cheaper drugs to customers. Further, the price of drugs in Canada is strictly regulated by the government. On an average, a buyer based in US can save anything from $50-$200 a month by purchasing drugs from across the border. Displaying a spirit of competitive capitalism, the Canadian companies began selling drugs directly to US customers in Border States and by other means, like Internet and phone, to buyers in other areas.

In the US, it is illegal to import prescription drugs from Canada. However, import of drugs for up to 3 months of personal use is permitted.

The interesting fact is that most of the brand-name prescription drugs sold in Canada and the US are all products of the same manufacturing plants. Canada imports many raw materials and finished products from the US. Thus, most Americans may actually be re-importing American drugs.

With increasing profits, Canadian pharmaceutical companies started looking at other means of marketing including sale via the internet and mail order delivery. The American model of differential pricing at the retail level and for bulk customers like insurance companies means that the real price of a drug sold may not be known. Thus, the main segment of customers who have approached Canadian pharmacies are either the uninsured or those states whose negotiation power has been curtailed thanks to various regulations. Thus, indirectly at least, these purchasers are actually paying for the subsidies doled out to the insured. This is why they end up paying more for the drugs in their own country.

In the long run however the increase in purchase from Canada may actually push the retail prices in Canada North wards. A phenomenon, which, is already happening thus, sooner or later Canadian drugs may also become expensive on par with their US counterparts. But for now at least, the Canadian pharmacies seem to be on the right track.

Canadian Online Pharmacy

Health care is becoming increasingly expensive. Who doesn’t want to take advantage of medicines available at lower prices? The concept of an online pharmacy serves the purpose well because of the savings and comfort of door delivery. It is a commonly known fact that drugs available in Canada are cheaper than in the US. There are several reasons to it. The US dollar being stronger implies savings in purchases from Canada. Also, generic medicines from Canada cost less than their branded American counterparts. There is no compromise on quality yet the prices are much lower.

Though a large amount of money is saved by ordering drugs from online Canadian pharmacies, it is important to double check whether an online pharmacy is authentic or not as even the smallest ignorance can cause huge health damages. For instance, improper storage and refrigeration while shipping or not putting appropriate labels on the packaging. Online pharmacies claming to be from Canada may not be actually from Canada. Some pharmacies even glorify the fact that they do not need a doctor’s prescription. Quality of drugs is the most important thing. Generic medicines though cheap may not always be good. So it is better to check on them before ordering. It is better to order drugs directly to an online pharmacy rather than brokers. In case of any problem, such an order will take a longer time to be corrected.

Experts recommend certain practices to ascertain safe and quality services from Canadian online pharmacies. Consumers can check authenticity of a pharmacy by the license number and authenticity seal displayed on the website. Good pharmacies provide medicines only after they get proof of the doctor’s prescription. Complete address and toll-free number of the pharmacy should be provided. Good pharmacies also describe differences between American drugs and their Canadian counterparts. The website must contain details of refunds, payment mode and shipping or other charges. Labeling is very important and must be checked when order is received. Labels should have information on the drug name, strength, dosage, expiry and other technical information.

The US and Canadian regulatory bodies are also working on a safe supply of medicines to put a strict check on illegal activities. However, it is the consumer who needs to be well informed and alert. All this information is not to spread bad word about Canadian online pharmacies but only to make people aware as health is the biggest asset.