The word ‘bank’ is derived from the Italian word ‘banca’, which is derived from the German word for ‘bench’. Moneylenders in Northern Italy originally did business in open areas or open rooms where each lender worked from his own bench or table. The very first banks were probably in religious temples of the ancient world. Greek temples as well as private and civic entities conducted financial transactions such as loans, deposits, currency exchange, and the validation of coinage. Charging interest on loans and paying interest on deposits developed in ancient Rome.

A bank is a financial institution that provides banking services such as accepting deposits and making loans. There are also financial institutions that provide certain banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank that are called non-banks.

The main functions of a bank include raising funds by attracting deposits, borrowing money in the inter-bank market, and issuing financial instruments in the money market or a securities market and then lending out most of these funds to borrowers including companies, individuals or government. Other services rendered by banks are facilitating international payments, issuing credit cards, provisioning safe locker facilities for valuables, project financing, merchant banking facility, online banking, personal banking, and investment banking. Typically, a bank generates profits from transaction fees on financial services and the interest charges on its loans.

There are several different types of banks including central banks, investment banks, merchant banks, private banks, savings banks, offshore banks, commercial banks, retail banks, and universal banks.

Present day banks need highly qualified, dedicated, and reliable staff because of intense competition from other financial institutions like insurance companies that provide some banking services to the public.

Bad Credit Debt Consolidation Advice

Depending upon the financial situation, the level of debt and the future prospects, every individual in personal debt may require a different approach to the debt repayment. An individual will have to choose a debt repayment plan that is best suited to his/her present financial situation.

There are various programs available and choosing the right solution to debt problems may be difficult for some. It is better to take professional advice from reputable credit counseling organizations. These organizations have trained professionals or certified credit counselors who are experts in the field of consumer credit and debt management.

Credit counselors first study the current financial situation of the customer. After understanding the payment abilities, the customers are given various options of managing money and debts. Each option is discussed along with their pros and cons. A debt management program is then developed and a plan is worked for the customer to follow.

Selecting a reputed credit counseling organization is important. A legitimate organization charges a flat fee per month or a small fee on every individual debt account handled. Their counselors study the financial situation thoroughly and educate the customers on budgeting and money management skills before suggesting or enrolling them in any debt management program.

Any credit counseling organization asking for financial data before sending information about their services should be avoided. The customers should insist that the credit counselor takes all the necessary steps to minimize the damage to their credit standing.

Credit counselors normally offer their services through the Internet or on telephones. Some counselors offer in person counseling. Financial institutions, credit unions, U.S. Cooperative Extension Service, local consumer protection agencies and many universities offer credit-counseling services on a non-profit basis.

The FTC gives free information to the customer regarding fraudulent business practices. They can be visited at their official website at

Cash Flow

Cash flow refers to the amounts of cash being received and spent by a business during a certain period of time. Cash flow reports are used as a financial planning tool for specific projects or businesses. A cash flow projection sets out all the expected payments and receipts in a given period. Managers use cash flow projections to arrange for employees and creditors to be paid at appropriate time. The transactions that are displayed in a cash flow chart are expected revenue, incoming and outgoing loan repayments, sales, material, labor and purchase of capital goods.

Cash flow statement is a financial report, which only shows incoming and outgoing money during a particular period. It doesn’t include non-cash items such as depreciation or purchases on credit. The report allows managers to analyze the short-term viability of a company. People who are interested in cash flow statements are accounting personnel, potential lenders and creditors, investors, employees and contractors. It is an important factor for start-up companies with limited liquid assets as they are vulnerable to devastating cash shortages and unexpected expenses.

When predetermined cash receipts are available they can be valued as assets. Such income streams can be purchased or sold due to the present value of their future cash flows. Most of the income streams that are bought, sold or brokered are privately owned by individual consumers or businesses rather than by banks or other financial institutions. There are many reasons one may need or want to sell cash flow such as to maintain a steady flow of working capital and to increase financial flexibility by converting non-current assets into ready cash. The cash flow funding process can be applied to annuities, leases, insurance benefits paid in installments, retirements accounts, royalties, lottery winnings and tax lien certificates.

When planning the short-term or long-term funding of a business, it is more important to anticipate the cash requirements than to just project profitability. The difference between sales and costs is a vital indicator of the performance of a business. The generation of a profit does not guarantee a business’ development or even the survival. Study of the cash flow and proactive steps to develop a healthy and positive cash flow assures the stability of any business.

Minority Small Business Loans

The first procedure for getting Minority small business loans is to submit an appropriate application form of the financial institutions/banks. It is worth mentioning that there are different types of application forms for different categories of grants. The information furnished in the application covers, inter alia, the following: the name and address of the borrower and his establishment; the details of the borrowers business; and the nature and amount of security offered.

The application form has to be supported by various ancillary statements like the financial statements and financial projections of the firm. The application is then processed by the financial institution-giving grant. This primarily involves an examination of the factors like ability, integrity and experience of the borrower in the particular business. General prospects of the borrowerx92s business, purpose of grant, requirement of the borrower and its reasonableness are also taken into perspective.

Once the application is duly processed, it is put up for sanction to the appropriate authority. If the sanction is given by the appropriate authority along with the sanction of grant, the bank specifies the terms and conditions applicable to the grant. These usually cover the amount of the loan or the maximum limit of the grant, the nature of the grant, the period for which the grant will be valid, the rate of interest applicable to the grant, the primary security to be charged, the insurance of the security, the details of collateral security, if any, to be provided, and the margin to be maintained.

The detailed appraisal of the project is done by the lead institution. The appraisal covers the marketing, technical, financial, managerial and economic aspects. The appraisal memorandum is normally prepared within two months after site inspection and placed before the Senior Executive Meeting (SEM) for a decision about approval of the project and determining the sharing arrangement among the institutions. Once a favorable decision is taken at the SEM forum and the sharing arrangement worked out, the case is referred to the Board of Directors of the lead financial institution. After the Board of Directors of the lead financial institution approves the proposal, a financial letter of sanction is issued to the borrower.


The legal provision of bankruptcy, though sometimes misused, is a progressive and often merciful process. By it, a hopelessly indebted individual can make an official declaration of financial inability and be free of obligation. This may be on a temporary or permanent basis, depending on the degree of insolvency.

With new amendments in US laws, there is little or no social or corporate stigma attached to filing for bankruptcy. Filing for bankruptcy, though a matter of public record, no longer means that it becomes a matter of public knowledge. Effectively, this is an incentive for the bankrupt party to make another attempt at financial solvency. An individual can file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7(for irreversible insolvency) or Chapter 13(for temporary insolvency).

The benefits of filing for bankruptcy include restoration of bank credit via a secured credit card. This requires a certain deposit to be made, but a new line of credit can be established within two years of doing so. Meanwhile, the bankrupt person has assured freedom from harassment by previous creditors.

The US Congress amended the US bankruptcy code(ratified in 1978) in 2005, and further amendments were made on October 17, 2005, to discourage the abuse of the generous provisions available.. In fact, the passing of these amendments was preceded by a literal stampede on bankruptcy courts by people hoping to beat their enactment.

Under the revised Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, (BAPCPA), someone filing for bankruptcy is subjected to stringent tests to establish genuine insolvency and present income. Another provision is that people dwelling in any particular state, must be residents of that state for at least two years to be eligible. Bankruptcy laws do not provide a shelter against alimony and child support obligations.


Cash is a physical manifestation of financial resources. As mankind progressed through civilization, from a barter system into a currency system of economic transaction, cash became a focal point, as it became the main medium of exchange. The definition of cash from a business perspective is different from what it means in our everyday language. To an accountant, cash is the most liquid form of asset and it includes coins, currency (paper money), money deposited in banks, money orders, traveler’s checks, cashier checks and credit card deposits. Technology has enabled us to carry cash in less cumbersome forms such as ATM cards, debit cards and credit cards.

Some important concepts related to cash are cash advance, cash registers and cash flow. Cash advances are a mode to meet minor emergencies in finance, based on a short-term process of withdrawal. A cash register is a mechanical or electronic device for calculating and recording sales transactions. Cash flow is the amount of cash being received and spent by a business during a certain period of time.

Some businesses such as retail stores are required to keep a larger amount of cash on hand and the cash is used as a change fund and petty cash fund. They use the term “change fund” to refer to the pre-determined amount of cash that is maintained by a cash register clerk at the beginning of his shift. Petty cash fund means a small amount of cash that is used to pay for minor expenditures.

Most businesses receive cash through two main sources. The first source is cash receipts paid by customers for goods or services. Businesses may receive some of their cash through electronic transfer over the Internet or receive credit card payments over the phone. Cash is easy to conceal, move and steal. Therefore, businesses use an elaborate system of internal controls to safeguard and manage their cash.

Cash Registers

A cash register is a mechanical or electronic device for calculating and recording sales transactions. It has an attached cash drawer for storing currency and also prints a receipt for the customers. While operating a retail business, wherein cash transactions are high, cash registers are an essential tool. Most cash registers come with features such as a cash register customization, networking, fiscal law compatibility, remote management functions and reporting.

Cash registers were invented by an Ohio-based bartender named James Ritty in 1879 for the purpose of eliminating employee theft. The first cash register was entirely mechanical and the employee was required to ring up every transaction on the register. When the key was pushed, the drawer opened and a bell would ring, alerting the manager to a sale-taking place. Those original machines were essentially simple adding machines.

Modern cash registers can be attached to scales, bar-code scanners, check stands and EFTPOS or credit card terminals, helping to make them more effective business tools.

A few different types of cash registers in use are battery powered cash registers, coffee shop cash registers, economy cash registers, inventory cash registers, royal cash registers, and sharp cash registers. Sharp cash registers use heavy- duty printers, can handle a larger volume of high transactions and are provided with cash drawers.

Standard cash registers are no longer adequate for today’s complex business requirements. Manufacturers of cash registers are focusing on the growth of intelligent point of sale (POS) systems. Today, these machines scan barcodes, retrieve the price from a database, calculate tax and deductions for items on sale, calculate differential rates for customers, and records the transaction and method of payment. Purchase of a cash register compatible with the business model and the needs, will go a long way in ensuring the efficiency of the enterprise.

Cash Payroll Loans

A cash payroll loan, another name for a quick payday cash loan, cash advance or instant cash loan, is one of the fastest and easiest ways to obtain access to cash to cover emergency financial needs. When you encounter a difficult financial situation, such as urgent medical and/or credit card bills, and you do not have enough cash on hand to cover these expenses, you can turn to a financial lender offering cash payroll loans to solve your financial problem quickly and conveniently.

A cash payroll loan is a short-term loan that covers an emergency need for cash or other short-term financial problem. These loans are designed for employees who need to bridge a cash flow gap between paydays. Getting a payroll loan is fast and easy. You can apply for a $500 to $3,000 loan and once it is approved, the cash is deposited into your account immediately. These types of loans are offered by various financial lenders, such as banks.

In the past, if you needed to get a cash payroll loan, you would have to personally go to traditional lenders. Now, using the Internet, securing a cash payroll loan is fast, easy and convenient. You can visit an online financial lender and apply for a cash payroll loan using a secure Web site. The online environment also provides you with more choices and allows you to compare interest rates, payment terms, and other important factors before you make a choice.

So if ever you find yourself in need of cash and your next payday is still a few days away, you can look for cash payroll loan deals and apply for fast cash. You don’t need to have collateral or even make a down payment. You don’t even need to have a good credit record. However, to ensure that you don’t into a debt trap, pay your cash payroll loan as soon as you get your paycheck.

Cash For Structured Settlements

Structured settlements might include either periodic payments or a lump sum payment made to an injured party. Also, some amount might be paid in advance as a lump sum to take care of any emergencies that might have resulted because of the accident.

There could be periodic lump sums in case there are other kinds of financial emergencies, instead of a regular periodic payment. The exact kind of settlement must be considered before entering into any agreement. Also, it is a compulsion to declare structured settlement while applying for any kind of loan.

Insurance companies deal with the structured settlements and sell them as annuities. These can be purchased with premium payments or with lump sum provided all at once. These could prove to be a big help in terms of emergency when the individual need to pay for a structured settlement payment in lump sum to some injured party. This will ensure that there is always some form of finance in hand that can be liquidated when money needs to be raised suddenly. However, it is suggested to decide carefully on which company to choose for buying an annuity. A little bit of market research might help a lot in investing in the best annuity. Check the amount of premium to be paid and the method in which the interest is being calculated. This might help in avoiding to pay more than the required amount for an annuity.

Before entering into an agreement with any insurance company, a little time in going through the contract might prove to be beneficial. The individual must be aware that the annuity might not be able to cover the whole structured settlement amount in case of emergency. However, the settlement can be liquidated for cash as and when required according to the redemption procedures of the insurance company.

Cash for Structured Settlements: An Introduction

You may have come across innumerable advertisements promising you attractive cash returns for your structured settlement. Alternatively, there may have been companies who might have approached you to cash your structured settlements. There may be instances wherein you need the money desperately, but before selling out, study the available options carefully. You must realize that there are both advantages and disadvantages associated with cashing structured settlements.

First and foremost, you need to decide whether selling the structural settlement, which you may have received as a result of a medical malpractice or a personal injury, is your only or best possible option.

Survey the market and you will find that there are many companies offering cash in return for the settlement. Before zeroing in on any one of them, do a comparative study and make sure the company you choose is financially sound. Also, remember to do a thorough study of the company background and its track record. This will minimize the risk of your not getting the payment.

There are many benefits associated with structured settlements. The major advantages of structured settlements are that it may reduce the plaintiff’s tax obligations and can sometimes be tax free. Then there is also the benefit of preservation of the settlement funds, which can be of great help for your future needs. Another advantage is that these settlements can also be coordinated with other benefits or public assistance.

Structured settlements can have some disadvantages associated with them. There may be instances when you do not have the funds to make even the necessary purchases. Also, at times you may have to pay high commissions while purchasing annuities. Another disadvantage can be in the form of your getting low returns for your investment options. Also, some people may find the entire process of payment in installments tiring. Alternatively, getting a lump sum payment gives you the chance of investing your money as you desire.