Wildlife art is considered as one of manx92s earliest art forms because some of the carvings that have been found in archeological sites predate written history. This art form inspires an appreciation of the relationship between man and nature. However, wildlife art can depict other things depending on which country or place the artwork comes from. An example of this is how Native Americans associated different traits with different animals. Another example is what wildlife art represents in Africa.
Wildlife art in African culture
One of the most common themes in African art is that of a male with a weapon or an animal, which is used to give honor to ancestors, because animal ownership in Africa connotes honor and power. Sculpting a horse together with the likeness of an ancestor gives honor to that ancestor. This is because in African culture, ownership of a horse signifies power and wealth, as riding a horse x93elevatesx94 the rider to a higher position compared to other people. With regard to other animals, the interpretation of what they depict can also depend on which tribe made the sculpture. Interpretations of the same animal may vary among tribes.
Multiplicity of meaning
On how Africans view wildlife art, it can be concluded that this kind of art tends to carry a multiplicity of meanings that depends on which tribe made it or for what ritual it was used. This fact has made it very difficult for Western observers to understand this art form in Africa given the numerous x93permutationsx94 of meaning that this art form may carry.
Wildlife art is one of the earliest art forms that man has created. Such an art form has been used by most cultures. However, different cultures interpret wildlife art differently from other cultures. This has led to a seemingly endless list of symbolism that cultures assign on art that depict animals.
People who find themselves displaced from their homeland and transferred to a foreign country would need to exert a lot of effort at ‘assimilating’ the local culture. This is because doing so may involve disregarding their own set of beliefs so that they would be able to conform to the culture of their ‘new’ country. African Americans had to shift their understanding of art so that their artistic creations would be appreciated in America. To better understand this concept, an appreciation of the history of African American art is needed.
Art in the time of slavery
The period of slavery in America saw how many African Americans had to shift their paradigms with regard to art, sticking to what were the accepted forms of art in America, which were mostly influenced by Europe. During this time, the African American artists were defined as ‘slave artisans with other skills such as quilt making.’ However, this definition later changed to ‘painters of white families’ portraits,’ and in some cases, the painters were called ‘portrait painters of well-to-do free persons of color.’ Some of these painters gained acclaim and were able to buy their freedom from their masters by bartering their artwork.
After the Civil War
In the period after the Civil War, many African American artists were being recognized for their talent. Up to the 1920s, most of the artists of this time produced works that were displayed in museums and studios. However, the works that were produced during these times still conformed with European tradition and the training that these artists received were still mainly characterized as European.
‘The Harlem Renaissance’
In the late 1920s, different African American artists formed a movement called Negro or Harlem Renaissance. This opened the door for African American art, in the form of literature, music, knowledge and visual arts, to become explored and rediscovered, which also led to the upliftment of the individuality of African Americans as a people. The decade that followed this was considered the ‘Renaissance’ of African American art, where artists broke free from foreign influences to discover their own unique art form. From this period on, African American artists were free to express themselves based on what has been discovered during this ‘Renaissance.’
The rough path that Black artists in America had to take is a testament to what they had to undergo to ‘regain’ their identity as a people. Give this, the history of African American art shows not only the struggles of Black artists towards freedom from foreign influences but also of self-discovery.
Only a small percentage of vanity published books turn out to be bestsellers. The decision to work with these publishers is risky. It is very important to make inquiries about the dependability of the press before turning over the manuscript. Moreover, it is advised to solicit opinions from competent individuals in the industry like professors, librarians or other writers.
Making agreements with vanity publishing companies can be complicated. It is better to be careful and closely read the stipulations. Be sure that you understand the terms and conditions. Seek the advice of a lawyer if there are any questionable provisions in the contract. It is highly recommended to seek an attorney that specializes in intellectual properties.
Most of these publishers can and do take advantage of writers. Have some reservation when the company guarantees to take care of everything regarding the sales of the book. Remember that it is expensive, and it requires more effort than publishing conventionally. Take time to look into directories and compare costs as well as services. Basically, the publishing company will file the copyright documents and provide ISBN, LOC and CIP. The rest of the responsibilities mainly fall into the author’s hands. It includes the distribution, promotion and sale of the book.
Again, publishing with a vanity publisher is very costly. If an author really wants to be published, but conventional publisher have not accepted the manuscript, than vanity publishing should be a consideration. A writer may not have all the skills to completely the book through all the publication steps. However, there are many decent firms and professionals like graphic artists, consultants or advertising firms that can help in the publication. In addition, an author can directly hire a printer.
Aside from charging high premiums, working with vanity book publishers can endanger future relationship with respectable conventional publishers.