Plane Fare

Plane fares must be considered before you buy a ticket. For instance, one-way trips often cost more than round-trip. The fares generally fluctuate depending on the seasons, and major events like concerts or conferences can also affect the cost. Always check the round-trip price even if you’re flying one-way, and avoid busy holiday dates as it will be crowded and also costly. Use the proper websites to determine the fare.

Airline pricing is a complex, unpredictable beast driven by competition, demand, and inventory. Airlines call it “yield management.” All major airlines fill their available seats and prices into four central reservation systems that are owned by various airlines. The systems are Apollo, Sabre, WorldSpan and Galileo. Airlines then change their prices based on demand. For example, if a certain flight is selling well, the price will increase. If another flight has no takers, the fare will drop until the airline gets more business. As a result, fares and inventories are changing every minute.

The reason behind this fluctuation and the need to check for the prices very frequently before booking a ticket are as follows: Internet travel sites and travel agents use the central reservation systems, which are updated periodically during the day. The four are not updated at the same time, which explains why different searches may yield different results.

The systems also may use different algorithms to search for the lowest fares, which subsequently provide varied fares. Demand explains why it is cheaper to fly when less people are traveling, like weekdays, odd hours, or days other than major holidays. Airlines change their prices based on competition. If one airline flying the New York-Miami route drops its rates by 20%, chances are all airlines will drop their rates, so as not to give the discounter a competitive advantage.

Fare differences can exist for the same route on different airlines because of other factors. For example, if one airline has the market share for that route, it may not need to lower fares to attract passengers.

Prices for a specific flight can go up or down even as your travel agent is getting your credit card information from you, so your cheap ticket can be whisked out from under you. And your fare is never guaranteed until you have paid. Airlines also use inventory to their advantage and to lure the unsuspecting flyer. They divide seats on each flight into several price ranges and set aside a certain number of discounted tickets. Naturally, the lowest fares draw your attention to advertisements. By the time you call, those seats will be gone.

Inventory brings us back to demand. If there is low availability and high demand, you will have to wait for a cheap fare. Sometimes airlines will change their fares or open up more discounted seats, depending on how sales are going. Because of all these factors, it is essential to look around and comparison shop. Regardless of whether you use the Internet or a travel agent, you will come up with a wide range of prices. The challenge is to know how to make the cheap fares yours.

Cargo Planes

In today’s competitive business world, the fast and efficient transportation of goods is a must. While sea vessels are ideal for transporting bulky goods, airplanes are better suited for speedy transportation over long distances. Initially, planes were not designed as cargo carriers. However, in 1911, planes started carrying cargo in the form of airmail. In mid 1920s, airplane manufacturers had started designing and building aircrafts that were solely dedicated to carrying cargo.

An air plane chiefly designed and used for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers, is known as a cargo airplane. A cargo airplane is easily identifiable, as the role demands a number of special features. Cargo planes in general have a ‘fat’ fuselage, a high wing to allow the cargo area to sit near the ground, and a high mounted tail to allow the cargo to be driven directly on and off the loading truck or crane. A cargo plane also has a large number of wheels to permit it to land in a greater number of locations.

Courier and transportation companies mainly use cargo planes. They help to transfer both light and heavy goods to places that are located far away. These planes are efficient and help to save time, as traveling by plane is the fastest mode of transportation.

At first, cargo planes were only used to deliver airmail to various different places. These were known as the ‘Early Airmail Craft’. There were four different planes made for that purpose. Among the first were the Boeing C-700, Curtis JN4H, De Havilland DH4, and the Douglas M-2. The second generation of cargo aircraft that was manufactured was the ‘civilian cargo aircraft,’ which included the Boeing 727, the Boeing 747 freighter, the Boeing 777 freighter, and the Douglas DC-3. The third generation of cargo aircrafts that was built consisted of ‘military cargo aircrafts.’ These included the Douglas C-54 Skymaster, Lockheed C-69 & C-121 Constellation, and the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter.

The airplane industry has made the transportation of cargo as well as people a lot more feasible. Cargo planes are widely used today, and they have come a long way since they were first invented before World War II.


Calligraphy is a unique form of art in Asian Cultures. It is among the four basic skills nee of the Chinese Literati.

It is regarded as an abstract and sublime form of art in the Chinese culture and is said to be very revealing of one’s personality. Its importance goes a long way to choosing executives in the Imperial Court. Different from other visual art techniques, all calligraphy strokes are the same and unbroken, thus demanding careful planning and confident execution—very similar to the skills needed for an executive. Even though calligraphy is confined to the structure of words or characters, there can be many creative ways for self-expression.

The key in good calligraphy is to control the concentration of ink, the porosity and thickness of paper, and flexibility of the brush. There are an infinite variety of styles and forms that an artist may create. This is in contrast to western calligraphy, where diffusing ink blots and dry brushstrokes are signs of impromptu expression rather than a fault.

The font-like uniformity of western calligraphy and homogeneity of characters is only a craft. The artist may seek mental exercises through calligraphy that coordinate the mind and the body to select the style in his expression and content of the words he is writing. The exercise is very disciplined yet very relaxing for a person who is concerned with his physical and spiritual well being. One of the qualities of a calligraphy artist is his longevity. Many of the famous calligraphy artists led a long and fruitful life.

Other popular East Asian Calligraphy includes Japanese and Korean. Koreans and Japanese consider calligraphy as a national treasure and a heritage worth preserving. In Japan, kids compete over the best calligraphy when school begins.

Famous Painters Picasso and Matisse, influenced by Orientalism, are two artists who openly declare the influence by Chinese calligraphy on their works.


A calendar is a systematic and structured documentation of the units of time for the purpose of estimating or calculating time over an extended period. Simply put, it is a record of the various units of time, namely days, months and years. A day is the smallest unit in the calendar. Calendars have existed in human civilizations for centuries. Historically, calculations of days, months and years in a calendar were determined by astronomical observations and events. The sun and the moon cycles were considered vital for creation and comprehension of early calendars. The movement of the earth from one fixed position to another was considered important for the depiction of a year, which is approximately 365.242190 days, although it may vary slightly. Similarly, the movement of the moon around earth (from one new moon to the next) was used to determine the synodic month, which is approximately 30 days, although it may vary. Some calendars are based on abstract continuously occurring cycles alone.

There are now about 40 calendars used throughout the world. The Christian, or Gregorian, calendar is now the most widely used calendar. Some of the concepts of month in this calendar have been derived from the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar had been introduced by Alvysius Lilius, a physician from Naples, and later adopted by Pope Gregory. The tropical year is 365 47/400 days, with 97 leap years in every 400 years. Some calendars, like the Islamic calendar, are based completely on lunar cycles, while others like the Jewish calendar are based both on solar and lunar cycles.

Calendars have been devised to serve the social, religious and occupational requirements of people of various cultures and societies for millenia. Even the aggressive and brutal Vikings of Scandinavia recognized the significance of calendars to plan their daily activities and living. In antiquity calendars enabled people to plan for agriculture, hunting and irrigation cycles, and record the dates of significant religious and social events. A calendar has acquired greater significance today. Scheduling one’s daily life has become necessary for survival.

Buying a Hookah

Since the culture of hookah shisha is one of relaxation, it’s best to approach the process of hookah buying with patience. Research the subject, become familiar with the best materials and products, consider the aesthetics–what pleases most and will most enhance the smoking experience for you? Quality, beauty, and price are the broad parameters to consider when you set out to buy hookahs.

While it’s a good idea to have checked out any local retail outlets where hookahs are available, and to have tried various hookah pipes at a lounge, your best bet in meeting the above criteria is probably going to be buying online. There’s simply a much broader range of hookahs available online, without the markup a brick-and-mortar store is forced to charge.

For the hookah body, also called the vase, or govde, Pyrex glass or ceramic, or some other non-porous, tempered material, are the best. Avoid wood or copper. Bases come in sizes from small to large and a multihued array of colors and designs. Stems will generally be stainless steel or another solid metal, fluted and, again, in a range of heights. Hoses also come in a variety of styles and lengths. The tobacco bowl should be ceramic, clay, or metal. You can get a hookah with one hose fitting or multiple hose fittings. There are a number of sites where you can build your own hookah from a selection of parts, and others where you can order custom hookahs. There is a wide selection of high quality hookahs available ready-made, however.

Egyptian hookahs generally have hand-blown glass bases in jewel and opal-toned colors, while Syrian hookahs have exquisitely ornamented ceramic or glass bases. Beyond these traditional styles there are a plethora of modern interpretations, animal shaped hookahs, mod hookahs, mini hookahs, traveling hookahs complete with carrying case, and rotating hookahs. Prices range from about $35 for a mini, quality, single-hose hookah, with a mid-range for medium hookahs at $60 to $100, and from about $115 to $135 or more for a large hookah. For a custom hookah, you can spend from around $225 for crystal to as much as $1,000 for a hookah made of silver.

Most hookah purchases will come with individual bowl, stem, plate, base, and hose or hoses, in separable parts for ease of cleaning, and will include tongs for coals, screens, brushes for cleaning, and instructions. Some will also come with a carrying case and extra rubber stoppers, some hookah tobacco and charcoal.

Background Search

The Internet is fast becoming as much of a mode of communication as a way of getting knowledge and entertainment in a faster and easier way. Many friendships first started out as instant message chats or chance meetings in chat rooms. Background searches are one of the latest ways of taking a peek at a person’s past, with or without him or her knowing it.

Though people can rely on their own good sense regarding business dealings or personal relations over the Internet, one should definitely use background searches before taking any further steps.

A background search is a tried and tested way of finding out necessary and common details about friends, acquaintances and romantic partners.

A lot of details can be found through various background searches. These background searches can give a lot of information about any given individual and can avert a lot of trouble. One can search for a person’s background using the name, address, maiden name or state of residence. The various backgrounds one can search through these include criminal history, personal history, property purchase history, marriage records and divorce records.

There are many ways that one can make a thorough background check of an individual. Private detectives have been traditionally employed by worried fathers for a thorough background check of their would-be sons-in-law.

Various websites offer background checks for individuals. While some of the searches are free, most should be paid for. These websites are basically search engines, which have a database of names, addresses, professions, telephone numbers and states of residence for various individuals.

Background Search Engines

Background search engines are a simple way to find background information over the Internet. Background search engines work much like regular search engines, with the only difference being the databases these search engines sift through for data.

The databases of the background search engines mainly involve information regarding the various searches one may search for, like names, addresses, Social Security numbers, employment history and more.

There are different search engines for different searches. For example, there will be a different database for an employee search engine as compared to a criminal search engine.

Various search engines require different forms of information. Some of the columns in a search engine can include first name, last name, gender, city, state and age. Through search engines, one can also search through maiden names and Social Security numbers.

The search engines collect and collate information on US residents regarding their names, phone numbers, current and past addresses, and birth years. Some background search engines then allow the user to connect to other websites and return queries with personal and sensitive information varying from criminal background checks to satellite photos of the residences.

Some of the sites have come under fire, after issues have been raised as to what stops potential stalkers and other criminals from getting personal information freely over the Internet. Many of the websites offer information up to ten years old.

While some of the searches on these websites are free, advanced searches cost money. People Search Engines, as they are called, are today found on various Internet portals as a side feature.

Baby Penguins

Penguins are a group of flightless birds found only in the southern hemisphere. They are of the order Sphenisciformes and the family Spheniscidae. There are seventeen species of penguins in the world, the largest of which is the Empire penguin, which stands at an average height of 3 feet and 9 inches. Most people think that penguins live only in the coldest places on Earth like Antarctica, but penguins also live in the tropics. A species of penguins live in the Galapagos Islands near the equator.

Penguins are some of the most familiar animals in the planet, although most people have never seen a penguin in the wild. But most people recognize penguins because of the distinct and easily identifiable black-and-white plumage that all penguins have. Penguins, in their natural habitat, are extremely adapted to the aquatic life. The sea is their main source of food, which consists of fish and small crustaceans called krill.

Penguins have a peculiar mating habit; some penguins will mate for life, while others for just one season. Penguin parents usually cooperate in taking care of their baby penguins. But it is mostly the task of the male penguin to incubate the egg until it is hatched. It is amazing how penguins take care of their offspring in the extreme cold and harshness of their habitat. Baby penguins are hatched covered with a grayish down that protects the chicks from the cold.

Throughout the nesting period, baby penguins are confined to the burrow or nest where they are fed by their parents. When baby penguins reach the age where they don’t need constant care from their parents, they are often grouped in nurseries where they wait while their parents hunt for food. One amazing trait of both parent and baby penguins is that they recognize each other even in the midst of hundreds of penguins. Once the baby penguin sheds its downy feathers and gets its plumage, it can then start to fend for himself.

Atomic Wall Clocks

Today, an atomic clock is the most accurate time-measuring device, and to manipulate our hectic schedules, we need constant reminders about every second wasted or gained. Having an atomic wall clock in our homes, offices, or public places affects our transportation, manufacturing, communication, and other technical functions.

We have swaggered hours away from sundials, the sand hourglass, and cuckoo clocks (with a cuckoo bird popping out every hour), or the carved wooden grandfather clock ticking in the hallway. The later pendulum and crystal quartz clocks were accurate but needed constant servicing. Atomic wall clocks have changed time viewing and are available in different designs and features, depending on the manufacturer. A radio-controlled atomic wall clock is reset to the US WWVB atomic clock in Boulder, Colorado, and can adapt automatically for daylight savings time. Some wall clocks have added features to monitor indoor temperatures for extra climate comfort or jumbo letters for checking time from distance.

Design and color are secondary, as the hallmark of a reliable atomic wall clock is that it should not require frequent setting and should automatically adjust to time changes. Most atomic wall clocks have their time corrected on regular basis through signals from regional stations. A clock purchased in the U.S. will not work in Europe or the Far East, as clocks contain chips specific to a region. Another important checking point is battery operation. Preference should be given for electric wall clocks, as battery back up is not a long-term proposition.

Technology has advantages and makes our lives comfortable. But there is nothing to beat the traditional wall clocks, with their tick-tocks reverberating throughout the entire house. A grandfather clock has a pendulum that oscillates back and forth to produce time-sound, while an atomic clock has preset alarm sounds. We do have crossovers, old models with the latest technology, but ask any wall clock collector and the answer would be that there is nothing to beat the romance of wooden wall clocks with Roman letters.

Atomic Clocks

Time waits for no man. Keeping this mind, we set about inventing clocks to synchronize ourselves with lunar cycles. It was an impressive leap, beginning some 10,000 years ago when the Egyptians came up with sundials in 2100 BC. Sundials, or shadow clocks, first used by Sumerians, worked on the premise of measuring the length of shadows to deduce time of day. Weather played spoilsport as on cloudy days, and when the months changed, shadows would not correspond with the markings. The Romans tried to do better by pilfering Cleopatra’s Needles, the tools used by Egyptians, but had to be content with town criers announcing the changing time. Around 325 BC, the water clock followed sundials; a water clock was basically a bucket of water with a hole in bottom to record slipping time but not hours. Various contraptions and models followed, ultimately resulting in clocks.

The word clock has its genesis in French word “cloche,” meaning bell. The first clock used weights to move gears, which in turn moved the hands. The one problem was that someone had to reset the weights until weight was propped by an oscillating horizontal bar attached to vertical spindle with protrusions to act as diversions. Soon, springs replaced weights, reducing the size of the clocks that could be carried, kept on a mantelpiece, or hung as wall clocks. Mechanical clocks and watches gave way to electronic timepieces with quartz crystal, later to be surpassed by atomic clocks.

Accuracy is the hallmark of atomic clocks, which are turning out to be more reliable and uniform when compared with time deduced by the rotation of earth. Atomic clocks operate by measuring the resonant frequency of a given atom i.e., Cesium, Hydrogen, or Mercury, increasing exactness more than a billionth of a second per day. It is this accurateness that has made atomic clocks more dependable as alarm clocks for domestic, scientific, or public functions.