Anxiety is a normal response to various types of stress or danger. Anxiety can manifest itself as an uneasiness of mind regarding an impending or anticipated ill. Although anxiety can be beneficial in certain situations, more often it is an abnormal and overwhelming sense of fear and apprehension. Self-doubt is a component of anxiety, and when anxiety begins to interfere with a person’s daily life, it needs to be treated.

Physical symptoms of anxiety include racing heartbeat, shortness of breath, chest tightness and dry mouth. The person might feel sick, or have “butterflies in the stomach.” Sweating is a common symptom, as is feeling weak or warm all over. Tremors and feeling dizzy are two more symptoms. The person might become confused or experience muscle tension or muscle aches along with fatigue. Some people complain of speeded-up thoughts, and many people feel an urge to urinate.

Cognitive symptoms include feelings of self-doubt and worry over bodily functions. Some people worry that they are having a heart attack, or that they might faint or be unable to breathe. Others fear they will die. Also common are feelings of being alone, being trapped or going insane. The person might worry that people are watching and that no one will help if a problem occurs. An unwillingness to go out and/or a strong flight response are also common. People might feel that they can’t do something, or are making fools out of themselves. Often, worries over health, job, or family overwhelm the person.

Emotional symptoms include feelings of rejection, anger, panic or isolation. The person might worry that they will lose control or have a generalized feeling of “doom and gloom.”

Feeling on edge or keyed up is common, and the person might be easily embarrassed or overly sensitive to criticism. Dread that something catastrophic is about to happen is common. Agitation and irritability, as well as feelings of detachment or isolation, are also signs of anxiety.

Anxiety can be debilitating to the sufferer. The first step toward recovery is recognizing the symptoms and seeking treatment. A combined course of therapy and medication (if necessary) will help the person get control of their anxiety so that it doesn’t dominate their life.

Cat Health

A pet cat looks to its owner for love, affection, warmth, food, and safety. It relies on its master to stay able-bodied, well nourished and safe throughout its life. This is not an overpowering or intense responsibility. Effective ways of maintaining cat health can be performed through preventative monthly checks at home, by keeping cats indoors and by having cats vaccinate per a veterinarian’s advice.

A thorough nose-to-tail checkup must be carried out to make sure there are no symptoms of any illness or diseases. The ears should be clean and pink and free of any wax or mites. The cat’s eyes should be brilliant, lucid, alert, and free of discharge. Oral checkups should include observing if gums are pink and teeth clean. There should be no tartar formation along the gum line and the cat’s breath should not be unpleasant.

Feeling the cat’s body for lumps, bulges, sores or other abnormalities is important as a precautionary practice. One must be attentive to spot fleas, dirt scratches and parasites, which are prone to be found behind the ears, between the toes and along the tail. To maintain a cat’s health, regular brushing of the fur is essential. This helps in removing dead skin cells and loose hair and also in clearing fleas off its coat. Cats clean themselves but in the process, they swallow a large amount of hair, which leads to vomiting of hairballs. There are many hairball remedies on the market, but the best way to deal with them is removing excess hair with regular brushings.

Regular clipping a cat’s claws prevents growth of paw pads. Cats enjoy scratching. Instead of de-clawing the cat, which is very painful and unnecessary, one must train the cat to use well-placed scratching posts. All cat owners should maintain an emergency first aid guide and a vet should be consulted when home care is inadequate.

Cats should not be given any medication without the advice of a veterinarian. Most common human drugs are toxic to cats. Along with performing regular home examinations one must take the cat to the vet for scheduled appointments. Taking simple precautions and following the advice of the vet is vital to enjoying life with a pet cat.

Cat Health Problems

All cat owners should be aware of the common health problems that their cat could face. Cat health problems can be detected through behavioral changes, symptoms and sounds. Common health problems include anemia, allergies, skin infections and tapeworms caused by fleas.

Flea collars are a popular accessory for solving the cat health problem of fleas, but their effects are still being debated. Some studies show they may also cause some irritation to the cat’s skin. Another cat health issue is ear mites. Ear mites are dark, waxy microscopic parasites, which itch and can be contracted by proximity to an untreated animal. If untreated, ear mites can cause deafness. Several treatments are available to fight this ailment.

Tapeworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and coccidia are internal parasites commonly affecting cats. Symptoms vary from mild to severe diarrhea, weakness, depression, loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting and a dull coat. A veterinarian can recommend de-worming medication based on a sample of the feces.

Toxoplasma gondii are small parasites, affecting humans with a weak immune system. These parasites can also affect a cat. Proper handling of food, and regular cleaning of litter boxes prevents the transmission of these parasites. Common symptoms include painful urination or blood in the urine.

Cats may contract upper respiratory infections causing sneezing, running nose, spotty eyes, fever and decreased appetite. Fatal if left untreated and highly contagious, prevention is the best approach. Feline infectious peritonitis is a lethal virus causing fever, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Blood tests can determine if there was exposure to the virus. There is no effective treatment and prevention using vaccines is the only hope.

Feline distemper is a contagious viral disease transmitted through contact with humans, infected cats, hair, paws and food bowls. Symptoms occur suddenly with vomiting, loss of appetite and diarrhea. Feline immunodeficiency virus, passed on by cat bites is fatal, causing chronic infections that don’t respond to medication, respiratory problems, loss of appetite, diarrhea and oral infections.

These are just a few common cat health problems. One must be attentive to the cat’s actions and behavioral changes at all times and work with veterinarians to overcome cat health concerns.

Cat Health Insurance

It is said that “cats almost always land on their feet”. However, when they don’t, an accident or illness might occur without warning. Whether the cat is an indoor or outdoor pet, obtaining a cat health care policy saves money. Cat health insurance is not complex or expensive. One can usually get a feline insurance policy for less than 10 dollars a month. When selecting a policy for the pet, one can choose an accident and illness plan designed specifically for cats.

Outdoor cats can face dangerous situations daily. A pet’s health can be protected with a wide-ranging health care package, planned with variable insurance charges. These insurance policies can include scratches, cuts, wounds from other cats, unfavorable response to insect bites, unintended ingestion of trash or other non-edible items and motor vehicle mishaps. These may all be covered at realistic monthly costs with low deductions.

Indoor cat owners may not be as interested in medical insurance, presuming it to be unnecessary. While indoor cats are less prone to motor vehicle accidents, they can still be part of accidents around the house. And they can get sick, especially as they get older. Good health care packages cover many common indoor feline medical situations without being a monetary drain.

There are many cat health insurance plans. One may choose solid accident and first time illness protection. This includes unlimited listed illnesses and protects kittens and young cats. An all-inclusive coverage for all accidents and over 3,500 illnesses, providing lifetime benefit on all types of mishaps can also be availed of. These are ideal as they offer a comprehensive coverage. Certain programs concentrate on senior pets, providing coverage of major sicknesses that are usually suffered by older pets. This includes health conditions such as seizures, accidents, cancer and heart problems. There are even some programs that cover veterinary costs in case a missing pet is brought home in a condition requiring lifesaving treatment.

These days, after studying various options, one may select a plan from myriad offerings, and find one that suits their pet’s needs.

Cat Fleas

There are more than 2,000 species of fleas around us. Out of these, the most common one is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. The cat adult fleas, unlike many other fleas, remain on the host. Though it exists worldwide, it is most commonly found in the United States. Cat fleas are commonly found on both cats and dogs.

In order to reproduce, cat fleas needs fresh blood. They lay eggs at the rate of one egg per hour. Their life cycle consists of four stages of metamorphosis, namely egg, larval, pupa and adult. Depending on external environmental factors like temperature and humidity, this cycle lasts 30 to 75 days. The most common problem occurring due to flea bites is flea allergy dermatitis, the severity of which depends upon the sensitivity of the host. Pet owners in the United States spend millions of dollars each year on flea allergy remedies. Cat fleas often carry infection too, and are feared to be capable of carrying plague and typhus. They also serve as the intermediate host to the dog tapeworm, an intestinal parasite, which gets transmitted to the pest when the flea carrying the tapeworm cyst is ingested.

The only possible way to detect fleas is to observe the behavior of your pets. Early detection of the fleas enables you to control them and minimize the suffering that can be caused to you and your pets by allergies or more serious infections transmitted by them. The most important way to control the breeding of fleas is to take proper care of sanitation of your indoor and outdoor premises. Ensuring proper care of pets by washing and shampooing them regularly is also another important factor. There are varieties of shampoos available in the market for pets, which contain pesticides, and are helpful in eradication of fleas.

Only by being conscious of cleanliness can we rid ourselves of the annoyance and hazards spread by cat fleas: by preventing them from breeding in and around our homes and pets.

Cat Constipation

Normally a cat has bowel movements once or twice a day. If the pet does not do it or strain to do it with hard feces, the cat is suffering from Constipation. It is a very common problem with cats and an occasional bout of Constipation is nothing to worry about.

But when a cat is chronically constipated it needs serious attention. As the cats age they are more prone to this problem. There are quite a few causes of Cat Constipation. Obstructions like hairballs, tumors and foreign bodies stop the movement of the feces inside the colon, and the fecal matter builds up. This becomes a hard dry mass and distends the colon, which looses its ability to contract and expel feces. This condition is known as megacolon.

When the cats are constipated they behave in a typical manner. They run to their litter box quite often and strain to pass stool. They make noise and start licking the anal area. They lose their appetite and become sluggish. Vomiting and passing a small amount of liquid feces is quite common.

If the Constipation is not very severe, an enema will clear the colon. Hard impacted feces may have to be physically removed in a veterinary clinic under anesthesia. Intravenous liquid is also given to prevent dehydration.

After the bout of Constipation is cleared, the underlying problem, like obstruction in the colon, has to be tackled. For the cats suffering from megacolon or an untreatable or unknown problem, a management regime has to be adopted. A high-fiber diet increases the bulk and assists in bowel movement. Increase the liquid consumption of the cat by feeding canned cat food rather than dry. Milk and soup can also be tried. We have to try and get the cat to consume liquid by a means that the cat likes.

If the megacolon is advanced, no amount of management can make it propel the stool to the exit. The only alternative is surgery. The colon is removed, and most surgeries are successful.


You live a very comfortable life. You party until the wee hours of the morning. You smoke like there is no tomorrow. You guzzle liquor like water. You never exercise or exert any kind of effort, because you do not like the feel of sweat rolling down your forehead. And after years of this lifestyle, time seems to have taken its toll.

At the present time, you are experiencing some chest pains, coupled with shortness of breath each time you try to walk some distance. You never thought that this would happen to you, even with the kind of lifestyle you lead. But now you realize that you are not as omnipotent and mighty as you thought you were.

One of your friends refers you to a doctor. The doctor is not just any kind of doctor. Your friend has referred you to a doctor who specializes in heart problems x96 a cardiologist.

Generally, cardiology is a branch of medicine. And just like any other branch, cardiology has a specific function and focus. It has anything and everything to do with the heart and its specific functions. Cardiology covers disorders of the heart, disorders of the blood vessels, diagnosis and cures for diseases and malfunctions of this vital organ.

For cardiologists to find out what condition your heart is in, they perform a complete physical check up and examination first. The results provide data regarding your heart’s condition. Along with that, you will be asked about your health history and your family’s as well. You will also be asked about your lifestyle and habits. This may seem totally unrelated to your condition, however these pieces of information will give the cardiologist answers regarding your heart condition.

Cardiology also entails several examinations, tests and procedures for patients complaining about possible heart problems. These could include an ultrasound of your heart, a cardiac stress test, an electrocardiogram (or also known as ECG and EKG) and the use of a blood pressure cuff among many others.

Cardiology Stethoscopes

While stethoscopes are used in a variety of situations, they are most commonly used to monitor patient’s hearts. Doctors use cardiology stethoscopes to listen for a variety of irregular sounds that could signal heart problems. Some problems detected by cardiology stethoscopes are irregular heartbeats and heart murmurs.

There are a number of different types of cardiology stethoscopes. Acoustic stethoscopes allow doctors to listen to the internal sounds of a patient’s body but do not amplify or record the sounds. Newer electronic stethoscopes do amplify and record internal body sounds. Many electronic stethoscopes can play back recorded sounds at various speeds and even create graphics or charts to visually represent patterns of the sounds. While acoustic stethoscopes may not have all of the same features as electronic models, they are still more common than electronic models and are reliable for detecting irregularities in a patient’s heartbeat and noticing blood flow problems.

Some of the sounds that doctors most often look for with cardiac stethoscopes are irregular heartbeats and heart murmurs. Cardiologists can hear the distinct sounds that these irregularities cause and treat the patient before the problem becomes worse.

An irregular heartbeat could mean many things. Some people’s hearts quickly speed up when they drink caffeine or alcohol. These types of irregularities are not life threatening, but could be uncomfortable. Other times, an irregularity could be a sign that the person has a life threatening condition such as ventricular fibrillation.

Heart murmurs are the sound of blood flowing too quickly or in abnormal pathways. Many athletes and some pregnant women have heart murmurs, but constant heart murmurs can be a sign that something is seriously wrong.

Cardiology stethoscopes can save lives. Cardiologists use them to detect any unusual noises and diagnose and treat problems before they become life threatening.

Canadian Prescription Drugs

Canadian pharmacies provide safe and affordable prescription drugs. About 50 million people in the US have inadequate medical coverage. The costs of prescription medication are much higher in the US than most countries in the world. As a result, millions of Americans are buying prescription drugs from online pharmacists based in Canada.

Drug prices in the US are not controlled by importing cheaper medicines or by direct controls. This is because it would cause billions of dollars in losses to the pharmaceutical industry and thereby curtail the ability of companies to invest in pharmaceutical research.

In order to provide funding for research and development, companies need to maximize profits. In view of these reasons, the likelihood of drug prices in the US matching those across the border is very low and it does seem like Canadian drugs will continue to be popular in this country.

Patients buying drugs from Canada do not get the same brands as what they get in the US. Some patients’ get a generic drug that is approved for use only in Canada. In many cases, it is possible and preferable to buy a FDA approved generic drug in US.

Canada is a small country and cannot supply all the prescription needs of Americans.

There have been shortages created in their own country due to a bustling illegal cross- border drugs trade. It is anticipated that companies in Canada will limit their supplies in the near future.

Getting Canadian prescription drugs in bulk is against US policy. The government will not prosecute, though, for personal buying in small lots. Canadian prescription drugs are not FDA approved, but their governing bodies have standards similar to the FDA. It is better to deal with a health care provider who knows about prescriptions in Canada. It is also advisable to double-check the dosage and instructions on the prescription before taking the medication.

If the prescription drugs are ordered online, the risk of purchasing a non-standardized drug is higher. Some of the drugs sold online may not have been approved by Health Canada, the regulatory body. There have been complaints from customers who purchased prescription drugs from an online pharmaceutical company. One common complaint has been that the drugs were not from a Canadian pharmacy, as claimed. They were instead manufactured in third world countries, and they do not have the same standards as the US or Canada do. Some customers have complained that they paid for their medications and were never delivered the drugs.

It is imperative therefore to ensure that the Web site selling the drugs is not an illegal one. Checking with consumer protection agencies will reveal if there have been any previous complaints. It is advisable to deal with a legitimate pharmacy or a well-known online drug store.

Canadian Pharmacy School

Pharmacists in Canada are now moving over and going beyond routine duties like sitting behind the counter, collecting drugs and counting them. In fact, the industry is now witnessing a paradigm shift and pharmacists are at the centre of this new development in that country.

Canada is now grooming a new generation of pharmacists who are now even counseling patients and giving them advice on the best and cost effective drugs. This new dimension to the career of a Canadian pharmacist has been attributed to the developments in the industry as a whole and the need to adapt to new market trends. Pharmacists are now being trained to adopt a patient centric approach, which also includes taking over some of the duties, hitherto performed by doctors.

Budding Canadian pharmacists are also being taught to identify, mitigate and prevent problems related to medication. While the field of pharmacy is ever changing and evolving, pharmacists are now required to be on their toes all the time and adapt to changes in all the three modes of drug sale including online, mail order and conventional methods. Pharmacy schools are now giving special training in these aspects. A pharmacist should learn to cope with the bulk of information flowing in or he could be overwhelmed just by the number of new drugs that are hitting the market every year.

Special emphasis is also placed on learning about the laws and regulations that are in place in Canada and the prevalent public health policy at the provincial or national government levels. Pharmacists are also required to liaise with community support groups and with ailment related groups like the local associations like the local lung association and local diabetics association. This mandates the knowledge of public relations work not to mention possession of good communication skills. The curriculum followed by Canadian pharmacy schools has evolved well in the last few years to cover these emerging areas and to provide students with the edge needed to obtain employment after obtaining their degrees.

Drug manufacturers have been roped in by many reputed pharmacy schools to aid pharmacy students in choosing their streams from a wide range of options. Pharmacists are also being guided to grow into the excellent community pharmacists who go on to become the first link in the health care system. They are expected to play a significant role in ensuring that the patients receive the best drug therapy. Pharmacists can also specialize in fields like oncology, infectious disease, psychiatry, etc. Specializations help them in playing their role in various health care teams.

The industry also wants pharmacists in areas like clinical research, marketing and public relations. They are also being involved in preparing information materials related to drugs and in educating pharmacists, physicians and patients.

As of now, 9 universities in Canada are having pharmacy schools. The admission requirements usually vary from one university to another. After obtaining a Bachelors degree in pharmacy, one has to pass a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada. After this, one can also get some practical experience through an internship program. Different provinces in Canada have put forth different requirements for becoming a licensed pharmacist.

In 2002, the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE) began recognizing the accreditations awarded by the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP) for programs leading to a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy.