Bookkeeping is the science and art of systematic recording, classifying and summarizing of financial transactions or events of a business in a set of books. A business transaction means the exchange of money or items of value between two or more persons.

Spicer and Pegler defined Bookkeeping as the systematic recording of the transactions in a manner enabling the financial relationships of a business with other persons to be clearly disclosed, and the cumulative effect of a transaction on the financial position of the business to be correctly ascertained. J. R. Baltiboi has observed that Bookkeeping is the art of recording business dealings in a set of books.

The recording of business transaction involves: analysis of transactions from the source document, recording those transactions, posting them in a ledger, and so forth. All business transactions are first entered in the journals. All these various types of entries need to be classified. This is achieved by opening different accounts on separate pages in the ledger and then posting various entries to the ledger under appropriate accounts.

A ledger account is a record of debits, credits and balances of each individual account–asset, liability, and revenue and expense items. Each account in the ledger represents a summarized record of all the transactions concerning that particular account. The importance of the ledger as the main book of accounts lies in the fact that the figures which appear in the financial statements, like balance sheets and profit and loss statements, are derived from the ledger. A ledger, together with cash and bankbooks, forms a complete set of business accounts.

Bookkeeping is the basis of the accounting process as financial accounting includes interpretations of details generated by the Bookkeeping.

1031 Exchange Services

In a 1031 Exchange, the main services come from a qualified intermediary (QI), also known by names like facilitator or accommodator. The services are offered on fee-for-service basis. The services from the QI include paperwork, oversight, escrow services and making a bona-fide exchange agreement under section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code.

For Deferred Exchange treatment, the IRS and the Treasury Department have very rigid requirements. Therefore, to pass these requirements, the services from an experienced professional are essential.

To get the services right, it is essential to ascertain the credentials of the service provider before hiring. In a 1031 Exchange, physical possession or receipt of the money resulting from sale of the property is not allowed, and money is held by the QI only. Therefore, his credibility in terms of bonding, background, reputation and financial strength of are crucial.

The QI is supposed to put the exchange fees in a separate account for the taxpayer, and not commingle that money with any other exchange.

There are several private agencies that maintain a database of qualified intermediaries across the United States. They can be of use in selecting the right intermediary with a good reputation, high level of bonding, competitive fee schedule, financial strength, expertise and integrity.

In the exchange process, the quality of the services is marked by speed, accuracy and safety. A good QI will have concern for the safety of the client’s funds. Through unique exchange accounts he can ensure that the funds cannot be deposited or withdrawn without signatures from both the exchanger and the company. Many taxpayers had the bitter experience of exchange funds misused by unscrupulous intermediaries. Every aspect of the exchange has to be managed according to the IRS rules and regulations.

The build-to-suit exchange is now becoming popular, where the QI is a major player. Also called construction or improvement exchange, this variant has the QI himself acquiring fee ownership of the replacement property and making improvements to it.

After the necessary improvements are done, within the exchange period of 180 days, the ownership is then transferred to the Exchanger.

This new variant of the exchange gives the investors a high degree of flexibility and the opportunity to improve upon an existing property or construct a new replacement property itself. Thus, the range of services provided by the QI and associates are unlimited from the word go.

1031 Exchange Forms

Typically, the 1031 Exchange involves forms like brokers’ price opinion, exemption and nonresident waivers, affirmation of residency, declaration of trust, IRS 8824 like kind exchanges, lien waivers, mortgage interest deductions, multifamily mortgage applications, notice of trustees sale, personal financial statements, power of attorney, promissory note, quit claims, schedule of income property, signature affidavit AKA statement or tax information release forms.

IRS Form 8824 has three purposes. It is not very complicated to fill if the three main purposes are understood correctly. The first one is to help the taxpayer report the dates of sale and replacement property closings, together with identification dates. This is to verify 45/180 date requirements. This information has to be in Part One.

Second is for the taxpayer to highlight their sale and purchase numbers (sale price, selling expenses, adjusted basis, depreciation taken, cost of replacement property) in order to make clear whether there was a full or partial exchange. This information should go in Part Three.

The third purpose is to show the new tax basis of the replacement property. The exchange being a deferral of taxes, the gain incurred by the taxpayer in the old property has to show up in the new property through an equal amount of lesser basis. This information must be there in Part Four.

The information in IRS Form 8824 makes the job of the IRS easy, to review a taxpayer’s prior 8824 Forms to ascertain the appropriate amount of taxable gain and see whether taxes are paid as and when the taxpayer decides to sell and not exchange.

But the exchanger or investor need not be baffled by the forms. The companies hired by the investor would provide the guidance and assist them in filling them out. The follow-up is also their responsibility.

Other forms include General Forms and the Official Identification Form to identify Replacement Properties to be returned not later than 45 days after the close of the Relinquished Property. W-9 Form is to request a Taxpayer ID for the investor. Form 593-C is meant for California Residents doing any sort of exchanges.

Forms related to funding issues include Request for Verification of Funds. This is to obtain a statement of the balance in the account, for the client himself or third parties, lenders, etc. The Miscellaneous Disbursement Request form is for releasing disbursements for appraisals, inspection fees, loan fees, etc.

Request for Return of Exchange Funds is for releasing the remaining exchange funds after the exchange is completed, and not for requesting closing money. Earnest Money Deposit Request is for the closing agent, and not for requesting closing money.

There are two major forms of tax-deferred exchanges–simultaneous exchange and delayed exchange. Numerous variations of these two fall into one category or the other.

The most basic type of exchange is the simultaneous exchange, known as In Lieu Exchange. To illustrate, in simultaneous exchange, the seller wants to sell the property A, agreeing to accept Property B in lieu of cash payment. If the Buyer already owns Property B, then the two parties simultaneously transfer their respective properties adhering to the value rules.

In the case of the buyer not owning property B, the buyer must purchase Property B and transfer it to the seller simultaneously with transfer of Property A to the buyer. To preserve the tax-deferred status of the transaction for the seller, he must not receive any cash or debt relief.

The other is delayed exchange known as a Starker exchange. This delayed exchange is done using a Qualified Intermediary (QI). In this type, the seller closes the sale of his property and escrows the proceeds of the sale with a QI. Here the seller is handicapped from taking possession of the proceeds in order to enjoy the tax-deferral status of the transaction.

After closing the sale of his property, the seller gets 45 days to identify the property or properties to be exchanged and should submit that in writing to the QI. The identified properties have to be purchased within 180 days of the sale of the relinquished property.


Like a stock exchange, a commodity exchange is also an organized market that functions under established rules and regulations. This market is meant for the purchase and sale of commodities. The commodities, which are generally traded in at the commodity exchanges, include natural produce of the soil, mineral products like lead, copper and some manufactured products like cotton goods, hides, skins, and sugar.

All of commodities do not lend themselves to dealings on the commodity exchanges. Generally speaking, products, which possess certain predefined characteristics, are dealt in at the exchanges. The commodity must be homogeneous, that is to say, all units of the lot of a particular commodity must be perfectly identical so that all dealers may mean the same commodity when they mention it in their dealings.

The commodity concerned should be such as will lend itself to grading. Unless it can be classified into recognized and well-known grades, trading will not be very quick, for every time the quality will have to be ascertained. In commodity exchanges, grades of commodities serve as a sufficient indication of the intention of the dealers. Commodities must be durable so as to last for the period of a future contract (ordinarily more than one year). If it perishes rather quickly, contracts for its purchase and sale will be frustrated.

The trading in the commodity must be sufficiently large so as to support the cost of facilities for the purpose provided by the exchange. In other words, there must be steady demand for the commodity. There must be frequent fluctuations in the price of the commodity. If that is not so, the speculators will have no incentive to speculate in it at the exchange. The supply of the commodity must be free and open, and should not be monopolized or controlled by one or a few persons. In addition, the government must not control the supply, and its price must not be regulated by government action.

Direct Depositing Paychecks

Every year, the Treasury Department of America restores around 800,000 checks that have been lost, stolen or damaged in transit. Now, for instance, the federal government gives social security, veteran’s benefits and other federal payments electronically, otherwise called direct deposit, although one could still be given federal payments by check. Additionally, many companies offer direct deposit of late.

The benefits of direct deposit are many. For one, checks cannot be lost or stolen. For another, payments get to an individual’s account the day of issue, no matter if the person is unavailable or unable to reach the relevant financial institution. Moreover, checking can be done at a very low cost, in some cases at no cost, because banks don’t have the additional expense of processing paper checks. Direct deposit protects checks from bouncing because they are deposited directly and on time. It also saves customers trips to the bank, and the hassle of waiting in line at the bank or ATM. The Federal government (as well as many companies) tends to deposit checks the previous day if payday falls on a holiday.

However, it is all not a bed of roses with direct deposit. For example, if one is attempting to protect one’s earnings from being embellished, or from someone else to whom the account is accessible, then cash or a paper check is definitely better.

In order to establish direct deposit, the employee has to go through the company of employment, who will have the relevant paperwork necessary to set it up. They will want the person’s social security number and an empty check containing the bank’s routing number and the particular account number of the individual. It takes a minimum of two weeks on average for direct deposit to become functional.

Setting up direct deposit for federal paychecks can usually be done over the phone or at the local federal building. However, federal government employees will not get a voucher every month stating how much was deposited in their account. They will have to confirm the direct deposit with the bank. This voucher, which looks just like a real check and contains all the same information, is usually sent to employees of private companies.

Home-Based Businesses for Sale

So you want to buy a business? Then you should consider a number of very important factors before investing your hard-earned money and buying a business. First, you should determine in which business arena you are going to invest. With the numerous choices available, such as franchises, start-ups, multi-level marketing and home-based businesses, figuring out where to begin can be overwhelming. You should then review all these possibilities and decide on which business will give you the greatest chance for success.

One of the many business opportunities you can pursue is the home-based or multi-level marketing business. MLM is also known as network marketing or referral marketing. It is also referred to as a home-based business because you don’t need to regularly report for a 9-to-5 office job. Your home can be the center of all your operations. Most MLM businesses involve selling a product or a service that a mother company supplies and produces. You earn a commission every time you or your recruit sell the product or service.

Home-based MLM business can be very lucrative if they are started right and maintained properly. Buying a home-based business like MLM has many advantages. First, there is very few start up costs involved in building a profitable business of this sort. And since it is home-based, you have maximum flexibility with your time. Furthermore, since you are buying into an already established business, you will be using an already-proven business formula that will most likely yield positive results in a short period of time.

Nevertheless, home-based business also has some disadvantages. For instance, there may be limitations imposed on some of your business practices, such as advertising and recruitment. You also have to depend a lot on your mother company. Lastly, you may find it awkward to market your products or services to your peers. There are many home-based businesses for sale. If you want to quickly find and compare various home-based businesses, you can try searching the Internet. There are a number of sites offering excellent information on home-based businesses for sale.

Business Contracts

A business contract is a legal promise made between two or more parties. A contract may be drawn when the associated parties wish to enter into a transaction like buying or selling, performing services, leasing properties, collaborating in joint ventures, advertising, manufacturing, distributing or selling goods, etc. The business contract is considered a surety against cheating by any of the associated parties.

The length of a business contract depends on the number of clauses being mutually agreed upon. It may be of a single page or it may run into a dossier of several pages. Every business contract is legally binding and attracts relevant stamp duties. The general practice is to compose such business agreements in the presence of lawyers of all the parties involved.

The first page of a business contract usually contains the names and addresses of the signatories. A brief description of their jobs can be mentioned along with their names. The date of signing the contract is put up on the first page.

The next part of the contract is called the recitals. This is a very short description of the type of transaction the parties are going to enter into. It is usually no longer than a paragraph. After recitals follow the specifications, in which there is a detailed description of the job the parties are to undertake. This part may run into several pages and it contains a very succinct description of the exact job portfolio. It sometimes contains formulas, diagrams, sketches and graphs in order to better explain the nature of the job.

Payment comes in the next section. A very clear mention is made of the remuneration that one of the parties is to give to the other. Either the exact figure is mentioned, or at least the determining factors are outlined. If time is extremely relevant in the completion of the job, then the sentence “Time is of the essence” is included. Whatever the conditions regarding the payment may be, they are to be put down in the contract.

Apart from all this, there are several legal points covered. It is written in the contract which state jurisdiction will apply in case of a legal suit. Also, the tenure of validity of the contract is mentioned.

A business contract is a very delicate matter. It takes several deliberations between the associated parties along with the involvement of their lawyers to reach a final draft. There are sometimes several negotiations and amendments in the agreement, until it becomes satisfactory to all concerned. Only after mutual agreement are the signatures put down on the document. All concerned parties have to preserve a copy of the contract as long as it is valid.


The word ‘bank’ is derived from the Italian word ‘banca’, which is derived from the German word for ‘bench’. Moneylenders in Northern Italy originally did business in open areas or open rooms where each lender worked from his own bench or table. The very first banks were probably in religious temples of the ancient world. Greek temples as well as private and civic entities conducted financial transactions such as loans, deposits, currency exchange, and the validation of coinage. Charging interest on loans and paying interest on deposits developed in ancient Rome.

A bank is a financial institution that provides banking services such as accepting deposits and making loans. There are also financial institutions that provide certain banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank that are called non-banks.

The main functions of a bank include raising funds by attracting deposits, borrowing money in the inter-bank market, and issuing financial instruments in the money market or a securities market and then lending out most of these funds to borrowers including companies, individuals or government. Other services rendered by banks are facilitating international payments, issuing credit cards, provisioning safe locker facilities for valuables, project financing, merchant banking facility, online banking, personal banking, and investment banking. Typically, a bank generates profits from transaction fees on financial services and the interest charges on its loans.

There are several different types of banks including central banks, investment banks, merchant banks, private banks, savings banks, offshore banks, commercial banks, retail banks, and universal banks.

Present day banks need highly qualified, dedicated, and reliable staff because of intense competition from other financial institutions like insurance companies that provide some banking services to the public.

1031 Exchange

Section 1031 in the Internal Revenue Service is a boon for a prospective investor, selling an investment property and wanting to make a profit by reinvesting in a similar property elsewhere in the country. This wonderful concept works on the principle of gain rolling from the old to the new.

There is widespread ignorance on the modalities about this exchange; as a result, 30-40 percent of property owners end paying tax during the sale. Exchange 1031 not only fructifies into essential tax savings, but also makes possible the swapping of property in the fairest manner at places of choice. No wonder that the 1031 Exchange excites the property market so much.

The new income-generating replacement property gives the investor the double gain of added income and savings from tax that would have otherwise gone to the IRS coffers.

Besides saving the buyer from a huge tax burden coming in the guise of capital gains, the instrument offers maximum immunity and flexibility in reinvesting the money gained from the sale in a replacement property within a given period.

The exchange being time-bound is no kid’s play either. In every exchange of this kind, Qualified Intermediaries (QI) plays a crucial role connecting the buyer and seller. The Federal Tax Code makes service of QI mandatory since 1991 in any exchange.

The federal nature of the 1031 Exchange regulations make the Qualified Intermediary play a wizard in guiding and structuring the exchange, satisfying all parameters and suiting the goals of the clients. It is the QI who does the paperwork required by the IRS to document the exchange. The QI carefully prepares all documents and serves the parties with copies of the exchange agreement, novation agreement and escrow instructions.

The Exchange Agreement reads like a contract between the Exchanger and a Qualified Intermediary. The Exchanger explicitly agrees to transfer his old property to the Intermediary, in lieu of a new property to be supplied by the latter within 180 days. The contract outlines all terms and conditions under which the exchange of properties should take place.

For a 1031 Exchange to take effect, both the old property as well as the new property should be in the category of investment property, capable of generating income. The examples could be rental property, bare land, vacation homes or more.

As soon as the old property is sold, within 45 days the seller has to come out with a list containing two or three probable properties fit for replacement. And the whole process of purchasing the new property or replacement property from the list must be over in a period of 180 days.

The exchange becomes bona-fide only when the title stays intact and whosoever held title to the old relinquished property gets the title of the new property.

In between the sale and purchase of property, the seller of the old property would get no access to the money he accrued from the sale, as the money will be vested with the ‘Qualified Intermediary’ till the exchange gets over.

This 1031 Exchange process has matured and had many names in the past including Like Kind Exchange, Deferred or Delayed Exchange, Simultaneous or Concurrent Exchange, Starker Trust or Exchange, Alderson Exchange, Reverse Exchange, Two, Three, or Four Party Exchange and Baird Exchange.

Instant Whole Life Insurance Quotes

A whole life insurance policy is a good long term investment vehicle if you are not planning to benefit from it yourself, unless you know that you will live until you are 100 years old. Whole life insurance policies terminate when you reach your 100th birthday, after which you will receive cash equivalent of the policy. But a whole insurance policy is meant to cover your hospitalization and medicine expenses caused by illnesses, accidents, or your death. You may borrow from it, though, and the loan may be paid for by your premium. You may also wish to cancel it and obtain the cash value of your payments.

If you are interested, you may access any of the insurance broker Web sites and request an instant whole life insurance quote. The quote you receive may not be the exact amount you will pay in premium once you do obtain the policy. The quote is based primarily on the information you provide the insurance company.

You will need to disclose your birth date, including the year. This is because the amount of your premium largely depends on how many more years you can actively contribute to your insurance plan. The younger you are, the lower your contribution will be compared to people older than you. The health and death risks will also be factored in the equation. And of course, the amount of coverage or policy also dictates how much you need to contribute. A smaller policy will not be too hard on your pocket. So choose wiselyx97 know how much will keep your benefactors cushioned against the financial implications of your death.

If it is investment with a return you can enjoy during your lifetime that you are looking for, you may be better off with term insurance policies and other vehicles with shorter life spans and maturity.