Auto Body Repair

Auto Body Repair is a technique that restores a damaged vehicle to its original condition. The Auto Body Repair entails repairing and properly matching the paint on vehicle bodies, repairing vehicle frames, and understanding mechanical, electrical and electronic systems.

Some of the processes used in Auto Body Repair are shop safety, automotive body construction, tools, welding, sheet metal repair, frame straightening, repair materials, adjusting body panels, painting and refinishing, and estimating the cost.

Auto body repair also deals in welding light-gauge motor vehicle body panels and under-frame structures. The mechanic might have to learn to repair minor and major accidents and corrosion damage, and measure, realign and repair upper body and under-frame structures.

The variety and type of auto body repair materials and tools varies with the type and size of the damage. Bondo creams and hardeners might necessitate reinforcement with fiberglass for larger holes and dents in the body.

There are many options available on the Internet for students interested in taking up auto body repair as a full-time career. Mostly, the course includes auto body fundamentals, industry overviews, and safety procedures. Students would have to perform hands-on repairs in the areas of non-structural and structural repairs, MIG welding, plastics and adhesives, refinishing, and other related areas.

It is advisable that a customer conducts a wide search on the Internet and on the phone to find more details about auto body repair before calling in the mechanics. As the process is expensive, one should call these highly skilled mechanics only when necessary.


A lease is basically a contract that transfers the right of possession. It could be property-related, equipment-related, or vehicle-related. Much easier than buying or financing, leasing is the most affordable way to get the equipment your business requires. Approximately eight out of 10 businesses today lease their equipment, and here are a few reasons why.

By leasing, you can get the equipment you need with little or no down payment. You can finance shipping, installation, and other related charges without any problems. In addition, you don’t have to worry about loading and unloading the equipment. When you are finished with the equipment, you can trade it in for newer equipment with no hassles.

Because you can lease the equipment you need with little or no down payment, you preserve your company’s working capital and lines of credit for other, more important uses. Today, there are many types of leases available, and each one can be customized to help you get the equipment you need for as long as you need it, at the price that fits your company’s budget.

Leasing typically allows you to acquire more expensive and sophisticated equipment than you would be able to purchase, and thus proves beneficial in the long run. With a fixed monthly lease payment, your company enjoys simplified planning, budgeting and accounting. Typically, lease agreements do not contain the restrictive covenants that are included in many types of loan and bond documents provided by other establishments.

Procuring the correct equipment is essential to running an efficient and productive business. Through leasing, your organization can have the new equipment it needs, when you need it, at a price you can afford. Because you’re only paying for the use of the equipment rather than ownership, you’re able to build your business without blowing your budget out of proportion.

Advanced Driving School

Driving is easy. If we know how to drive, we might never have any accidents on road. Isn’t this right? No, this is wrong.

Accidents occur. Therefore, to avoid mishaps, we need to have some extra driving skills. Advanced Driving Schools step in here, to help us in avoiding possible accidents and imparting that extra bit of driving skills. Advanced Driving courses can be taken at any time. Beginners and experienced drivers can enroll in an Advanced Driving School.

Schools such as Advanced Driving and Security (ADSI), White Mountain Chapter, Alberta Advanced Driving School, Advanced Drivers of America, Inc. (ADA), Accent Driving School in Ontario, and Maxwell’s Advanced Driving Schools, Inc offer Advanced Driving courses both to novices and professionals.

Courses are always divided into classroom and on-track sessions. While detailed and thorough teaching on the basics is provided in the class, hands-on practice and training is provided on the roads.

Max Maxwell’s Advanced Driving Schools offer a variety of courses like slalom course, threshold braking course, and accident avoidance course. Rules are the same for all students. Alberta Advanced Driving School, in contrast, has different methods for all its learners. Depending upon the skill and knowledge level of the students, the classroom and driving lessons are structured. Hence, beginners get a more thorough theory class before venturing out into the arena, while intermediates can get on the road faster.

A school devoted especially to novices is White Mountain Chapter, which also has an amalgamation of theory and practical courses in Advanced Driving. Advanced Driving and Security, on the other hand, focuses on imparting training to both professional and normal drivers. Advanced Drivers of America, Inc. also offers a variety of courses, ranging from some hours to five days, all suited to novices.

Usually, Advanced Driving Schools teach all techniques to avoid mishaps and deal with any situation effectively. Car dynamics, skid avoidance, accident avoidance, and much more are all taught and practiced at these schools.

A commonly held myth is that Advanced Driving is only helpful for security drivers, emergency drivers, and the like. In reality, Advanced Driving learning is a must for all drivers and proves to be a boon for all who have learnt it.

LED Light Bulbs

Light is made up of photons which are, in simple words, packages of energy. An excited electron releases photons. The color of the light depends on the wavelength, which in turn depends on the energy released by the electrons.

With Edison’s light bulb, mankind moved from candles to electric light. The electric bulbs ruled for nearly a hundred years. The general light bulb consists of a tungsten coiled filament, inert gas, the glass mount, electric contact and the housing which keeps all intact. With the electric current, the electrons in the atoms are raised to a higher energy level. When they fall back to their normal levels, the extra energy in the form of photons is released by the electrons .When heated with the electric current, the metal filament emits visible light. The inert gas prevents a combustion reaction.

With the rise of semiconductors, LED bulbs become more popular. According to the basic working principle of the diode, when the conduction band is made wide, the light emitted by diodes can be seen by human eyes. To create a large number of photons, LEDs are specially constructed to release electrons. Also, the plastic bulb in which the diode is placed helps concentrate the light in the desired direction. The sides of the bulb make most of the light from the diode bounce off and travel on through the rounded end of the bulb.

The plus point is that LEDs do not contain any filament. LEDs are more efficient than conventional bulbs with filaments. The average life of an LED is up to 10,000 hours. They are more durable and more resistant to blows or shocks. LEDs require less power; hence less battery is consumed than with conventional bulbs. The energy wasted is minimal with LEDs.

The negative point is cost. As they are made with advanced semiconductor technology, the cost is more than for conventional bulbs. But again, long running capacity and durability give LEDs the upper hand.


The carburetor is the part of an automobile engine that converts liquid fuel into vapor. This is mixed with a certain amount of air that allows combustion in the cylinders. All gasoline vehicles have carburetors, including boats and light aircraft. Carburetors are generally found in small engines and in older automobiles, especially those used in stock car racing. Most engines have only one carburetor though most modern engines that have bigger engines or more than 4 cylinders use multiple carburetors.

The history of carburetors can be traced to the development of the wick carburetor by Donat Banki, a Hungarian engineer in 1893. Frederick and his brother built the first petrol driven car in 1896. Then in 1900, they built a 2-cylinder engine using the new wick carburetor. This car was taken on a successful 1000-mile tour, marking an important landmark in the use of the carburetor in automobiles.

There are two kinds of carburetors, downdraft carburetors, wherein the flow of air is downwards; and side-draft, wherein the flow of air is sideways. Most automobiles in the U.S. use downdraft carburetors while side draft carburetors are found more in Europe. Carburetors are also classified as fixed choke and constant depression or variable choke. The variable choke carburetors are generally used in the UK because they are simple in adjustment and maintenance. Carburetor’s efficiency depends on its capacity to provide the right mixture of fuel and air under each circumstance of engine operation. The different engine conditions are cold start, idling or slow running, acceleration, high speed/high power at full throttle and cruising at part throttle (light load).

The main parts in a carburetor are an open pipe, which is the carburetor’s “barrel” or “throat” through which the air reaches the engine. The butterfly valve or the “throttle”, a rotating disc in this pipe, controls the air flow through the carburetor throat, which influences the power and speed of the engine. This throttle is connected to the accelerator of the vehicle. The major manufacturers of carburetors are Amal Ltd., Autolite, Carter, Holley, Pierburg, Rochester, Solex, Stromberg, SU, Walbro and Tillotson (small engines), Briggs and Stratton, Villiers, Weber, and Zenith.

Carburetor Tuning

Carburetor servicing or tuning makes sure that all the parts are in working condition. There are several reasons why a carburetor may stop functioning or may not function to its full capacity, including gasoline resins or dust particles clogging the carburetor jets, gumming up of the throttles and stickiness of the choke valves. Carburetor parts are controlled by springs that may become worn out over time, which will affect the functioning of the carburetor. Tuning the carburetor from time to time will prevent its complete breakdown.

Tuning may involve replacing some of the parts that are available as carburetor kits. Tuning a carburetor ensures that the engine is in good working condition. Carburetors are affected by several conditions like unfavorable climate, different types of fuel, the terrain, and the type of riding. There is not time limit for carburetor tuning; it should be done whenever the ride was dusty or when the roads are muddy.

Carburetor tuning starts with pressure washing the bike, especially at the bottom where roost and oil is likely to accumulate. The sub-frame can be removed for better access. A look at the vent hoses would reveal any melting or clogging that might cause the engine to bog. Check the cable for any frays or kinks. Sometimes the rubber dust cover may be torn and may need replacement. Check the float bowl, jet baffle, float, airscrew, and the fuel inlet needle. Ensure that all these are in working condition, free of dust. Next, check the bell mouth of the carburetor to see that there is no clogging at the two holes at the bottom.

Flush the passage after dismantling the carburetor. This can be done by a can of brake or carburetor cleaner that is available in any automobile parts store. While spraying the cleaner, ensure that it flows out the pilot and the air passage in the bell mouth. Next, spray it through the tiny passage between the venture and the intake spigot. This will open any clogging along the passages, thus ensuring free flow of gasoline and air. Lastly, flush the slides bore and slide.

Jetting is the process of adjusting or changing the air or fuel jets. Before jetting, look for crankcase air leaks, crankcase oil leaks, coolant-system leaks, carbon-seized exhaust valves, blown silences, broken reed-valve petals, weak spark, clogged carburetor vent hoses, too low or too high carburetor float level, and worn carburetor fuel-inlet needle. There are certain things to be taken into consideration before jetting, including the air temperature, humidity, altitude, track conditions, fuel, and load. There are three types of carburetor tuning gauges including Relative-air-density (RAD) gauges, Air-fuel (AF) ratio meters and Exhaust-gas-temperature (EGT) gauges.

Carburetor Parts

The carburetor is the component of an automobile engine that mixes gasoline and air in the right proportion for internal combustion. Carburetors are generally found in older vehicles as this technology has been replaced by computerized electronic fuel injection, which is more fuel-efficient and has lower emission. Carburetor engines generally contain only one carburetor though some larger engines may use multiple carburetors. Automotive carburetors come in two kinds, downdraft and side-draft. Down draft carburetors are used in the US because of the V-engines while side-draft carburetors are used in the Europe.

A carburetor is just a tube with an adjustable plate called the “throttle”, placed across it. This throttle controls the amount of air that flows through the tube. The carburetor tube narrows down at a place called the venture, where a vacuum is created. There is a hole in this narrowing called the jet that allows the fuel to be drawn in because of the vacuum. There are several parts in a carburetor that allow for smooth functioning. They are the pilot, pilot airscrew, throttle valve, jet needle, needle jet, air jet, and main jet. Other important parts are the choke, accelerator pump, float chamber and barrels that help to create the ideal mixture of gas and air in the engine.

Carburetor parts are generally available as carburetor kits or repair kits rather than individually. Some parts are sold only in exchange for old parts. The main parts in a carburetor are integral chokes, heat riser tubes, divorced or remote chokes, choke pull-offs and dashpots, carburetor tags, and brass floats. Most manufacturers provide carburetor parts for almost all models of carburetors and carburetor parts usually come with a warranty. The Internet is a good source for suppliers of carburetor parts and there are several websites that offer comprehensive information about carburetor parts.

Carburetor Kits

The carburetor is one of the most important parts in automobile engines. The carburetor ensures that there is the right mix of gasoline and air in the engine so that the engine functions correctly. Too much air or too much gasoline in the mixture causes damage to the engine, so a carburetor is very important in all stages of the engine functioning. Carburetors are generally found in old cars and in small engine automobiles like 2-wheelers, lawn mowers, and chain saws. All new cars use the fuel injection technique instead of carburetors because of its low emission levels and fuel efficiency.

A carburetor is just a tube with an adjustable plate called the throttle placed across it. This throttle controls the amount of air that flows through the tube. The carburetor tube narrows down at a place called the venture, where a vacuum is created. There is a hole in this narrowing called the jet that allows the fuel to be drawn in because of the vacuum. There are several parts in a carburetor that allow for smooth functioning. They are the pilot, pilot airscrew, throttle valve, jet needle, needle jet, air jet, and main jet.

Carburetor kits are a complete set of carburetor parts that can be easily assembled and placed in an engine. These kits are pre-tested and pre-jetted. Most carburetor kits contain parts for replacing broken down parts within the carburetor. They can be customized to fit the exact model of the carburetor. There are carburetor kits available for Harley-Davidson, Triumph, and Norton bikes. Carburetor kits are very important since very few cars and bikes use carburetors these days so carburetor kits help to keep old Harley-Davidson engine running, for example. Though all carburetors are not the same, there are some common makes of carburetors for which kits are readily available at automotive dealers’ stores. Kits for specialized carburetors are available at specialty automotive stores.

There are several websites on the Internet that contain information about carburetor rebuilding. These sites also provide carburetor rebuild kits for many car models including pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, and recreational vehicles. These kits can be ordered online and are usually shipped on the same day. They also provide professional support by technicians who would take a look at the engine and help to decide the best carburetor kit for rebuilding the carburetor.

Car Spoilers

Car spoilers are aerodynamic additions that are normally mounted on top of a car’s trunk or positioned under the front bumper. Car spoilers make a car unique and stand out in a crowd. Car spoilers also improve the car’s performance and sometimes stimulate its resale value.

Car spoilers are quite easy to install, and usually come with sealing gaskets and mounting bolts. Most car spoilers are made from polyurethane, while some are made from lightweight steel or fiberglass. Some spoilers make use of a combination of two or three dissimilar substances. Car spoilers made of ‘high impact resin’ have high density with extreme temperature resistance and are super impact resistant. These types are also lightweight and durable, and will not crack, separate or sag.

The frontal car spoilers are also called air dam. The rear spoiler, sometimes known as a wing, provides a downforce for better stability when accelerating at top speeds. Some rear spoilers come with a warning brake light built into the spoiler.

Car spoilers used on a race car reduce its lift and drag, as well as increase the amount of force pushing the vehicle’s tires to the road surface. These, in turn, would ensure to boost in traction, permitting the car to brake, turn, and accelerate properly and more forcefully.

Spoilers come in different weights, therefore adding any amount of mass to the rear of a car will impact driving in varying augmentations. A car with a good spoiler means that there is less resistance, which would result in a higher top speed.

Car spoilers are available universally, and can be ordered through the Internet as well. Many designs are offered for each vehicle manufactured. Generally, spoilers can be purchased unpainted so that one may have it painted for an accurate color match with their car.

Car Show Models

Car companies use the services of models to attract prospective customers to their products. Photographs of cars along with models are taken and used for advertisements in the print media. This has given rise to a whole new genre of modeling, viz. car show modeling. There are several professional car show models who may charge anything up to $500 a day for providing their services.

The majority of these models are female. Since most car buyers are male, good-looking female models are used by car manufacturers to rivet the male attention to their cars. Sports cars are generally advertised with female models cavorting in various poses around them. The model is clothed in attires that accentuate the purpose of the photograph. Usually skimpy summer outfits or denim outfits are preferred as they cater to the sense of adventure of the buyer. These outfits are more common with sports cars. Some sleek cars like sedans use models in leather outfits to increase the daredevil approach of the advertisement. Limousines and such elite cars use sensuous models in formal attire.

Since car show models are used mostly in print, the basic qualification to be one is beauty. Car manufacturers prefer models with curvaceous figures and photogenic faces. Photographers exhort their models to exude sexiness during the shoot. Such pictures of cars with models are used on the cover pages of sports magazines in order to boost their sales. Sometimes, their services are employed live during car shows. Models pose in front of cars that are exhibited during HIN or NOPI car shows.

Some popular car show models today are Francine Dee, KT So, Natasha Yi, Masuimi Max, Tila Nguyen, Sasha Singleton, etc. Quite a few of them have been Playboy models and a few have even had a foray in Hollywood and the music world.